Biomechanics pp 353-381 | Cite as

Description of Internal Deformation and Forces

  • Y. C. Fung


Since living organs normally go through finite deformation, a bioengineer should know the subject of finite deformation analysis. This subject is not difficult, but it usually lies outside the common engineering curriculum. It is not simple, and considerable patience is needed to master it. In the following, a presentation of its most important aspects is given in easy to understand physical terms. There are many books and papers on this subject (see References). Fung (1965) is believed to be one of the easiest to read.


Stress Vector Strain Energy Function Lagrangian Description Kirchhoff Stress Undeformed State 


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  1. Biot, M.A. (1965). Mechanics of Incremental Deformations. (Theory of elasticity and viscoelasticity of initially stressed solids and fluids, including thermodynamic foundations and applications to finite strain). Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Chen, Zhi-da (1986). Rational Mechanics, (in Chinese). China Institute of Mining and Technology Press, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.Google Scholar
  3. Eringen, A.C. (1967). Mechanics of Continua. Wiley, New York.MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Fenton, T.R., Cherry, J.M., Klassen, G.A. (1978). Transmural myocardial deformation in the canine left ventricular wall. Am. J. Physiol. 235: H523 — H530.Google Scholar
  5. Fung, Y.C. (1965). Foundations of Solid Mechanics. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
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  8. Fung, Y.C. (1981). Biomechanics: Mechanical Properties of Living Tissues, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
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  11. Malvern, L.E. (1969). Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium. Prentice-Hall, N.J. Waldman, L.K., Fung, Y.C., and Covell, J.W. (1985). Transmural myocardial deformation in the canine left ventricle. Circ. Res. 57: 152–163.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. C. Fung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science/BioengineeringUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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