Advertisement

Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Verbal Interactions in Psychotherapy

  • Rolf Wynn
  • Svein Bergvik
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we will discuss qualitative research methodology and qualitative research in general and present some examples of how different qualitative methods play a part in research on psychotherapy. Furthermore, we will discuss how one method—Conversation Analysis—can fruitfully be used to study verbal interactions in psychotherapy.

Keywords

Qualitative Research Qualitative Method Qualitative Interview Qualitative Researcher Patient Interaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Antaki, C., Barnes, R., & Leudar, I. (2004). Trouble in agreeing on a client’s problem in a cognitive-behavioural therapy session. Rivista di Psicolinguistica Applicata, 4, 127–138.Google Scholar
  2. Antaki, C., Barnes, R., & Leudar, I. (2005). Diagnostic formulations in psychotherapy. Discourse Studies, 7, 627–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bäckström, S., Wynn, R., & Sorlie, T. (2006). Coronary bypass surgery patients’ experiences with treatment and perioperative care – A qualitative interview-based study. Journal of Nursing Management, 14, 140–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baier, M. (1995). Uncertainty of illness for persons with schizophrenia. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 16, 201–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes, R., & Moss, D. (2007). Communicating a feeling. Discourse Studies, 9, 123–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beach, W. A. (1995). Preserving and constraining options: “Okays” and “official” priorities in medical interviews. In G. H. Morris & R. J. Chenail (Eds.), The talk of the clinic (pp. 259–289). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  7. Bergmann, J. (1992). Veiled morality: Notes on discretion in psychiatry. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work (pp. 137–162). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bergvik, S. (1997). Communicative behavior in video mediated communication. A descriptive field study comparing video mediated and face-to-face communication on turn-taking, listener response and gestures in dyadic psychotherapy supervision. Thesis for the professional degree of psychology. Tromsø, Norway: University of Tromsø.Google Scholar
  9. Bergvik, S., Sørlie, T. & Wynn, R. (2010). Approach and avoidance coping and regulatory focus in patients having coronary artery bypass surgery. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 915–924.Google Scholar
  10. Byrne, P. S., & Long, B. E. L. (1976). Doctors talking to patients. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  11. Drennan, G., & Swartz, L. (2002). The paradoxical use of interpreting in psychiatry. Social Science and Medicine, 54, 1853–1866.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Drew, P., Chatwin, J., & Collins, S. (2001). Conversation analysis: A method for research into interactions between patients and healthcare professionals. Health Expectations, 4, 58–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (1992). Analyzing talk at work: An introduction. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings (pp. 3–65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Finset, A. (2008). Qualitative methods in communication and patient education research. Patient Education and Counseling, 73, 1–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Forrester, M., & Reason, D. (2006). Conversation analysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy research: Questions, issues, problems and challenges. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 20, 40–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frankel, R. M. (1990). Talking in interviews: A dispreference for patient-initiated questions in physician–patient encounters. In G. Psathas (Ed.), Interaction competence (pp. 231–262). Washington, DC: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  17. Gammon, D., Sørlie, T., Bergvik, S., & Høifødt, T. S. (1998). Psychotherapy supervision conducted via videoconferencing. A qualitative study of user experiences. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Giacomini, M. K., & Cook, D. J. (2000a). User’s guide to the medical literature. XXIII. Qualitative research in health care A. Are the results of the study valid? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 357–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Giacomini, M. K., & Cook, D. J. (2000b). User’s guide to the medical literature. XXIII. Qualitative research in health care B. What are the results and how do they help me care for my patients? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 478–482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Haakana, M. (2001). Laughter as a patient’s resource: Dealing with delicate aspects of medical interaction. Text, 21, 187–219.Google Scholar
  21. Heritage, J. (1984). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Heritage, J. (1988). Explanations as accounts: A conversation analytic approach. In C. Antaki (Ed.), Analysing everyday explanation: A casebook of methods (pp. 127–144). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Heritage, J., & Maynard, D. (2006). Communication in medical care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hutchby, I., & Drew, P. (1995). Conversation analysis. In J. Verschueren, J. O. Östman, & J. Blommaert (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics (manual) (pp. 182–189). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  25. Hutchby, I., & Woofitt, R. (1998). Conversation analysis. Principles, practices and applications. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  26. Jefferson, G. (1984). On the organization of laughter in talk about troubles. In J. M. Atkinson & J. Heritage (Eds.), Structures of social action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Jones, E. (1961). The life and work of Sigmund Freud. Oxford: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Knox, S., & Burkard, A. W. (2009). Qualitative research interviews. Psychotherapy Research, 19(4–5), 566–575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Larsson, U. S., Johanson, M., & Svärdsudd, K. (1994). Sensitive patient–doctor communications relating to the breasts and prostate. Journal of Cancer Education, 9, 19–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Leudar, I., Antaki, C., & Barnes, R. K. (2006). When psychotherapists disclose personal information to their clients. Communication & Medicine, 3, 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Littauer, H., Sexton, H., & Wynn, R. (2005). Qualities patients wish for in their therapists. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 19, 28–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Little, P., Everitt, H., Williamson, I., Warner, G., Moore, M., Gould, C., et al. (2001). Observational study of effect of patient centeredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultation. British Medical Journal, 323, 908–911.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Madill, A., Widdicombe, S., & Barkham, M. (2001). The potential of conversation analysis for psychotherapy research. Counseling Psychologist, 29, 413–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malterud, K. (2001a). The art and science of clinical knowledge: Evidence beyond measures and numbers. Lancet, 358, 397–400.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Malterud, K. (2001b). Qualitative research: Standards, challenges and guidelines. Lancet, 358, 483–488.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Maynard, D. W. (1989). Notes on the delivery and reception of diagnostic news regarding mental disabilities. In D. Helm, A. J. M. Anderson, & A. Rawells (Eds.), The interactional order (pp. 54–67). New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  38. McCabe, R., Heath, C., Burns, T., & Priebe, S. (2002). Engagement of patients with psychosis in the consultation: Conversation analytic study. British Medical Journal, 325, 1148–1151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. McCabe, R., Leudar, I., & Antaki, C. (2004). Do people with schizophrenia display theory of mind deficits in clinical interactions? Psychological Medicine, 34, 401–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. McLeod, J. (2001). Qualitative research in counselling and psychotherapy. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Messari, S., & Hallam, R. (2003). CBT for psychosis: A qualitative analysis of clients’ experiences. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 171–188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Palmer, D. (2000). Identifying delusional discourse: Issues of rationality, reality and power. Sociology of Health and Illness, 22, 661–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Peräkylä, A. (1995). Institutional interaction and clinical practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peräkylä, A. (1997). Reliability and validity in research based on tapes and transcriptions. In D. Silverman (Ed.), Qualitative research (pp. 201–220). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Peräkylä, A. (2005). Patients’ responses to interpretations: A dialogue between conversation analysis and psychoanalytic theory. Communication & Medicine, 2, 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Peräkylä, A., Antaki, C., Vehviläinen, S., & Leudar, I. (Eds.). (2008). Conversation analysis and psychotherapy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Quirk, A., & Lelliot, P. (2001). What do we know about life on acute psychiatric wards in the UK? Social Science and Medicine, 53, 1565–1574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Roter, D. L., Hall, J. A., Kern, D. E., Barker, R., Cole, K. A., & Roca, R. P. (1995). Improving physicians’ interviewing skills and reducing patients’ emotional distress: A randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 155, 1877–1884.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sacks, H., Schegloff, E., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organisation of turn-taking in conversation. Language, 50, 696–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schulze, B., & Angermeyer, M. C. (2003). Subjective experiences of stigma. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 299–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Silverman, D., & Peräkylä, A. (1990). AIDS counselling: The interactional organisation of talk about “delicate” issues. Sociology of Health and Illness, 12, 293–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Silverstein, L. B., Auerbach, C. F., & Levant, R. F. (2006). Using qualitative research to strengthen clinical practice. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 37, 351–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, J. A. (Ed.). (2008). Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  55. Sørlie, T., Gammon, D., Bergvik, S., & Sexton, H. (1999). Psychotherapy supervision face-to-face and by videoconferencing: A comparative study. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 15, 452–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ten Have, P. (1999). Doing conversation analysis: A practical guide. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  57. Wells, S. (2003). Freud’s Rat Man and the case study: Genre in three keys. New Literary History, 34, 353–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. West, C. (1984). Routine complications. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  59. West, C., & Frankel, R. M. (1991). Miscommunication in medicine. In N. Coupland, H. Giles, & J. M. Wieman (Eds.), “Miscommunication” and problematic talk (pp. 166–194). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  60. Wynn, R. (1995). The linguistics of doctor–patient interaction. Oslo: Novus Press.Google Scholar
  61. Wynn, R. (1999). Provider–patient interaction. Kristiansand, Norway: Norwegian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  62. Wynn, R. (2000). Incomprehensible language in psychiatric doctor-patient interaction. Published abstract. 7th International Pragmatics Conference, Budapest, July 9–14, 2000.Google Scholar
  63. Wynn, R., Bergvik, S., & Elvevåg, B. (2009a). Exaggerations in consultations between psychiatrists and patients suffering from psychotic disorders. Communication & Medicine, 6, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wynn, R., Karlsen, K., Lorntzsen, B., Bjerke, T., & Bergvik, S. H. (2009b). Users’ and GPs causal attributions of illegal substance use: An explorative interview study. Patient Education and Counseling, 76, 227–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Wynn, R., Rimondini, M., & Bergvik, S. (2008). Mixed methods in the analysis of therapist-patient interaction. Presentation at the International Conference for Communication in Healthcare, Oslo, September 2–5, 2008.Google Scholar
  66. Wynn, R., & Wynn, M. (2006). Empathy as an interactionally achieved phenomenon in psychiatric interactions. Some conversational resources. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 1385–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Clinical Medicine (FT)University of TromsøTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations