The telegraph goes global
By the early 1850s, the telegraph network was expanding rapidly and there was a growing need to lay cables across stretches of water. In view of the problems that had been encountered with insulation on land-based cables, it was clear that underwater cables would present some major challenges. In 1842, Morse installed a submarine cable between Castle Garden and Governor’s Island in New York Harbor, but the cable was damaged by a ship’s anchor after transmitting just one message. In 1845, Ezra Cornell set up a 12-mile underwater cable between Fort Lee, New Jersey and New York City. This cable had worked for several months before it was broken by an ice flow. In 1850, a 25-mile underwater cable was installed between England and France, but it was cut by a French fisherman after only 3 days.
KeywordsEarth Return Paper Tape Single Wire Time Division Multiplex Return Path
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