Advertisement

Genetic Polymorphisms Predisposing Individuals to Breast Cancer Via Gene–Environment Interaction

Chapter

Abstract

Breast cancer incidence varies considerably between Western and non-Western countries. Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are highest in North America and Northern Europe, intermediate in Southern Europe and Latin America, and lowest in Asia and Africa. In recent years, however, a dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence has been reported in several Asian countries, including Korea. Immigrant studies have suggested that environmental rather than genetic factors are primarily responsible for the international variability and secular trend of breast cancer rates. This chapter presents current findings on environmental risk factors for breast cancer, specifically in terms of gene–environment interactions. The scope of environmental factors encompasses obesity, hormonal factors, including menstrual and reproductive history, and dietary factors, including alcohol, folate, fruits, vegetables, antioxidant vitamins, and meats and their metabolic mutagens. For each environmental factor, we reviewed articles that assessed genetic polymorphisms that have a plausible biological mechanism for breast cancer risk modification.

Keywords

Genetic polymorphisms Gene–environment interaction Predisposition of individuals to breast cancer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Kwang-Pil Ko, M.D., Ph.D., Eun Ha Lee, M.D. and Eorin Cho, Ph.D. for their contributions to the literature review.

References

  1. Abbas, S., Nieters, A., Linseisen, J., Slanger, T., Kropp, S., Mutschelknauss, E. J., lesch-Janys, D., Chang-Claude, J. 2008. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and haplotypes and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res 10(2):R31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham, B. K., Justenhoven, C., Pesch, B., Harth, V., Weirich, G., Baisch, C., Rabstein, S., Ko, Y. D., Bruning, T., Fischer, H. P., Haas, S., Brod, S., Oberkanins, C., Hamann, U., Brauch, H. 2005. Investigation of genetic variants of genes of the hemochromatosis pathway and their role in breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:1102–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahn, J., Gammon, M. D., Santella, R. M., Gaudet, M. M., Britton, J. A., Teitelbaum, S. L., Terry, M. B., Neugut, A. I., Ambrosone, C. B. 2005a. No association between glutathione peroxidase Pro198Leu polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:2459–2461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahn, J., Gammon, M. D., Santella, R. M., Gaudet, M. M., Britton, J. A., Teitelbaum, S. L., Terry, M. B., Neugut, A. I., Eng, S. M., Zhang, Y., Garza, C., Ambrosone, C. B. 2006. Effects of glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) genotype and potential modifiers on breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 27:1876–1882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahn, J., Gammon, M. D., Santella, R. M., Gaudet, M. M., Britton, J. A., Teitelbaum, S. L., Terry, M. B., Neugut, A. I., Josephy, P. D., Ambrosone, C. B. 2004. Myeloperoxidase genotype, fruit and vegetable consumption, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 64:7634–7639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahn, J., Gammon, M. D., Santella, R. M., Gaudet, M. M., Britton, J. A., Teitelbaum, S. L., Terry, M. B., Nowell, S., Davis, W., Garza, C., Neugut, A. I., Ambrosone, C. B. 2005b. Associations between breast cancer risk and the catalase genotype, fruit and vegetable consumption, and supplement use. Am J Epidemiol 162:943–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahsan, H., Whittemore, A. S., Chen, Y., Senie, R. T., Hamilton, S. P., Wang, Q., Gurvich, I., Santella, R. M. 2005. Variants in estrogen-biosynthesis genes CYP17 and CYP19 and breast cancer risk: a family-based genetic association study. Breast Cancer Res 7(1):R71–R81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ambrosone, C. B., Ahn, J., Singh, K. K., Rezaishiraz, H., Furberg, H., Sweeney, C., Coles, B., Trovato, A. 2005. Polymorphisms in genes related to oxidative stress (MPO, MnSOD, CAT) and survival after treatment for breast cancer. Cancer Res 65:1105–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ambrosone, C. B., Coles, B. F., Freudenheim, J. L., Shields, P. G. 1999a. Glutathione-S-transferase (GSTM1) genetic polymorphisms do not affect human breast cancer risk, regardless of dietary antioxidants. J Nutr 129:565S–568S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ambrosone, C. B., Freudenheim, J. L., Thompson, P. A., Bowman, E., Vena, J. E., Marshall, J. R., Graham, S., Laughlin, R., Nemoto, T., Shields, P. G. 1999b. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) genetic polymorphisms, dietary antioxidants, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Res 59:602–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ambrosone, C. B., Freudenheim, J. L., Sinha, R., Graham, S., Marshall, J. R., Vena, J. E., Laughlin, R., Nemoto, T., Shields, P. G. 1998. Breast cancer risk, meat consumption and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) genetic polymorphisms. Int J Cancer 75:825–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ambrosone, C. B., McCann, S. E., Freudenheim, J. L., Marshall, J. R., Zhang, Y., Shields, P. G. 2004. Breast cancer risk in premenopausal women is inversely associated with consumption of broccoli, a source of isothiocyanates, but is not modified by GST genotype.Google Scholar
  13. Ambrosone, C. B., Moysich, K. B., Furberg, H., Freudenheim, J. L., Bowman, E. D., Ahmed, S., Graham, S., Vena, J. E., Shields, P. G. 2003. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors. Breast Cancer Res 5(2):R45–R51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bailey, L. B., Gregory, J. F., 3rd. 1999. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and other enzymes: metabolic significance, risks and impact on folate requirement. J Nutr 129:919–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Beckman, L. E., Van Landeghem, G. F., Sikstrom, C., Wahlin, A., Markevarn, B., Hallmans, G., Lenner, P., Athlin, L., Stenling, R., Beckman, L. 1999. Interaction between haemochromatosis and transferrin receptor genes in different neoplastic disorders. Carcinogenesis 20:1231–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bennermo, M., Held, C., Stemme, S., Ericsson, C. G., Silveira, A., Green, F., Tornvall, P. 2004. Genetic predisposition of the interleukin-6 response to inflammation: implications for a variety of major diseases? Clin Chem 50:2136–2140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bernard-Gallon, D., Bosviel, R., Delort, L., Fontana, L., Chamoux, A., Rabiau, N., Kwiatkowski, F., Chalabi, N., Satih, S., Bignon, Y. J. 2008. DNA repair gene ERCC2 polymorphisms and associations with breast and ovarian cancer risk. Mol Cancer 7:36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bischoff, J. R., Plowman, G. D. 1999. The Aurora/Ipl1p kinase family: regulators of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Trends Cell Biol 9:454–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bosron, W. F., Li, T. K. 1986. Genetic polymorphism of human liver alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, and their relationship to alcohol metabolism and alcoholism. Hepatology 6:502–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brentano, S. T., Picado-Leonard, J., Mellon, S. H., Moore, C. C., Miller, W. L. 1990. Tissue-specific, cyclic adenosine 3#,5#-monophosphate-induced, and phorbol ester-repressed transcription from the human P450c17 promoter in mouse cells. Mol Endocrinol 4(12):1972–1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bretherton-Watt, D., Given-Wilson, R., Mansi, J. L., Thomas, V., Carter, N., Colston, K. W. 2001. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. Br J Cancer 85(2):171–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cai, Q., Shu, X. O., Jin, F., Dai, Q., Wen, W., Cheng, J. R., Gao, Y. T., Zheng, W. 2003. Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha gene and risk of breast cancer: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:853–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cai, Q., Shu, X. O., Wen, W., Cheng, J. R., Dai, Q., Gao, Y. T., Zheng, W. 2004. Genetic polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase gene, antioxidant intake, and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Breast Cancer Res 6:R647–R655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chacko, P., Rajan, B., Mathew, B. S., Joseph, T., Pillai, M. R. 2004. CYP17 and SULT1A1 gene polymorphisms in Indian breast cancer. Breast Cancer 11(4):380–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chakraverty, R. K., Hickson, I. D. 1999. Defending genome integrity during DNA replication: a proposed role for RecQ family helicases. Bioessays 21:286–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chang, J. H., Gertig, D. M., Chen, X., Dite, G. S., Jenkins, M. A., Milne, R. L., Southey, M. C., McCredie, M. R., Giles, G. G., Chenevix-Trench, G., Hopper, J. L., Spurdle, A. B. 2005. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors: Australian Breast Cancer Family Study. Breast Cancer Res 7(4):R513–R521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chang, J. H., Gertig, D. M., Chen, X., Dite, G. S., Jenkins, M. A., Milne, R. L., Southey, M. C., McCredie, M. R., Giles, G. G., Chenevix-Trench, G., Hopper, J. L., Spurdle, A. B. 2005. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors: Australian Breast Cancer Family Study. Breast Cancer Res 7(4):R513–R521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen, S. T., Choo, K. B., Hou, M. F., Yeh, K. T., Kuo, S. J., Chang, J. G. 2005b. Deregulated expression of the PER1, PER2, and PER3 genes in breast cancers. Carcinogenesis 26:1241–1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen, J., Gammon, M. D., Chan, W., Palomeque, C., Wetmur, J. G., Kabat, G. C., Teitelbaum, S. L., Britton, J. A., Terry, M. B., Neugut, A. I., Santella, R. M. 2005a. One-carbon metabolism, MTHFR polymorphisms, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Res 65:1606–1614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen, Y., Gammon, M. D., Teitelbaum, S. L., Britton, J. A., Terry, M. B., Shantakumar, S., Eng, S. M., Wang, Q., Gurvich, I., Neugut, A. I., Santella, R. M., Ahsan, H. 2008. Estrogen-biosynthesis gene CYP17 and its interactions with reproductive, hormonal and lifestyle factors in breast cancer risk: results from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Carcinogenesis 29(4):766–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cheng, T. C., Chen, S. T., Huang, C. S., Fu, Y. P., Yu, J. C., Cheng, C. W., Wu, P. E., Shen, C. Y. 2005. Breast cancer risk associated with genotype polymorphism of the catechol estrogen-metabolizing genes: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility. Int J Cancer 113(3):345–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Choi, J. Y., Abel, J., Neuhaus, T., Ko, Y., Harth, V., Hamajima, N., Tajima, K., Yoo, K. Y., Park, S. K., Noh, D. Y., Han, W., Choe, K. J., Ahn, S. H., Kim, S. U., Hirvonen, A., Kang, D. 2003. Role of alcohol and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 in breast cancer development. Pharmacogenetics 13:67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chou, Y. C., Wu, M. H., Yu, J. C., Lee, M. S., Yang, T., Shih, H. L., Wu, T. Y., Sun, C. A. 2006. Genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, plasma folate levels and breast cancer susceptibility: a case-control study in Taiwan. Carcinogenesis 27:2295–2300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Coin, F., Marinoni, J. C., Rodolfo, C., Fribourg, S., Pedrini, A. M., Egly, J. M. 1998. Mutations in the XPD helicase gene result in XP and TTD phenotypes, preventing interaction between XPD and the p44 subunit of TFIIH. Nat Genet 20:184–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Comings, D. E., Gade-Andavolu, R., Cone, L. A., Muhleman, D., MacMurray, J. P. 2003. A multigene test for the risk of sporadic breast carcinoma. Cancer 97:2160–2170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cui, Y., Shu, X. O., Cai, Q., Jin, F., Cheng, J. R., Cai, H., Gao, Y. T., Zheng, W. 2005. Association of breast cancer risk with a common functional polymorphism (Asp327Asn) in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(5):1096–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Curran, J. E., Lea, R. A., Rutherford, S., Weinstein, S. R., Griffiths, L. R. 2001. Association of estrogen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms with sporadic breast cancer. Int J Cancer 95:271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Curran, J. E., Vaughan, T., Lea, R. A., Weinstein, S. R., Morrison, N. A., Griffiths, L. R. 1999. Association of A vitamin D receptor polymorphism with sporadic breast cancer development. Int J Cancer 83(6):723–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dai, Q., Cai, Q. Y., Shu, X. O., Ewart-Toland, A., Wen, W. Q., Balmain, A., Gao, Y. T., Zheng, W. 2004. Synergistic effects of STK15 gene polymorphisms and endogenous estrogen exposure in the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:2065–2070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. De Vivo, I., Hankinson, S. E., Colditz, G. A., Hunter, D. J. 2003. A functional polymorphism in the progesterone receptor gene is associated with an increase in breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 63:5236–5238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Deeb, S. S., Fajas, L., Nemoto, M., Pihlajamaki, J., Mykkanen, L., Kuusisto, J., Laakso, M., Fujimoto, W., Auwerx, J. 1998. A Pro12Ala substitution in PPARgamma2 associated with decreased receptor activity, lower body mass index and improved insulin sensitivity. Nat Genet 20:284–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Deitz, A. C., Zheng, W., Leff, M. A., Gross, M., Wen, W. Q., Doll, M. A., Xiao, G. H., Folsom, A. R., Hein, D. W. 2000. N-Acetyltransferase-2 genetic polymorphism, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:905–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Delfino, R. J., Sinha, R., Smith, C., West, J., White, E., Lin, H. J., Liao, S. Y., Gim, J. S., Ma, H. L., Butler, J., Anton-Culver, H. 2000. Breast cancer, heterocyclic aromatic amines from meat and N-acetyltransferase 2 genotype. Carcinogenesis 21:607–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ding, S. L., Yu, J. C., Chen, S. T., Hsu, G. C., Shen, C. Y. 2007. Genetic variation in the premature aging gene WRN: a case-control study on breast cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(2):263–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dunning, A. M., Healey, C. S., Pharoah, P. D., Foster, N. A., Lipscombe, J. M., Redman, K. L., Easton, D. F., Day, N. E., Ponder, B. A. 1998. No association between a polymorphism in the steroid metabolism gene CYP17 and risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 77:2045–2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dunning, A. M., McBride, S., Gregory, J., Durocher, F., Foster, N. A., Healey, C. S., Smith, N., Pharoah, P. D., Luben, R. N., Easton, D. F., Ponder, B. A. 1999. No association between androgen or vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 20(11):2131–2135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Egan, K. M., Cai, Q., Shu, X. O., Jin, F., Zhu, T. L., Dai, Q., Gao, Y. T., Zheng, W. 2004a. Genetic polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 and the risk for breast cancer: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Egan, K. M., Newcomb, P. A., Ambrosone, C. B., Trentham-Dietz, A., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Hampton, J. M., Kimura, M. T., Nagase, H. 2004b. STK15 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in a population-based study. Carcinogenesis 25:2149–2153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Egan, K. M., Thompson, P. A., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Moore, J. H., Ambrosone, C. B. 2003. MnSOD polymorphism and breast cancer in a population-based case-control study. Cancer Lett 199:27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Egeberg, R., Olsen, A., Autrup, H., Christensen, J., Stripp, C., Tetens, I., Overvad, K., Tjonneland, A. 2008. Meat consumption, N-acetyl transferase 1 and 2 polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in Danish postmenopausal women. Eur J Cancer Prev 17:39–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Einarsdóttir, K., Darabi, H., Li, Y., Low, Y. L., Li, Y. Q., Bonnard, C., Sjölander, A., Czene, K., Wedrén, S., Liu, E. T., Hall, P., Humphreys, K., Liu, J. 2008. ESR1 and EGF genetic variation in relation to breast cancer risk and survival. Breast Cancer Res 10(1):R15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Einarsdóttir, K., Rylander-Rudqvist, T., Humphreys, K., Ahlberg, S., Jonasdottir, G., Weiderpass, E., Chia, K. S., Ingelman-Sundberg, M., Persson, I., Liu, J., Hall, P., Wedrén, S. 2005. CYP17 gene polymorphism in relation to breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res 7(6):R890–R896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Feigelson, H. S., Coetzee, G. A., Kolonel, L. N., Ross, R. K., Henderson, B. E. 1997. A polymorphism in the CYP17 gene increases the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Res 57:1063–1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fletcher, O., Johnson, N., Palles, C., dos Santos Silva, I., McCormack, V., Whittaker, J., Ashworth, A., Peto, J. 2006. Inconsistent association between the STK15 F31I genetic polymorphism and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 98(14):1014–1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Freudenheim, J. L., Ambrosone, C. B., Moysich, K. B., Vena, J. E., Graham, S., Marshall, J. R., Muti, P., Laughlin, R., Nemoto, T., Harty, L. C., Crits, G. A., Chan, A. W., Shields, P. G. 1999. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype modification of the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control 10:369–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Futaki, M., Liu, J. M. 2001. Chromosomal breakage syndromes and the BRCA1 genome surveillance complex. Trends Mol Med 7:560–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gago-Dominguez, M., Jiang, X., Castelao, J. E. 2007. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress genes and dietary factors in breast cancer protection: a hypothesis. Breast Cancer Res 9:201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gaudet, M. M., Gammon, M. D., Santella, R. M., Britton, J. A., Teitelbaum, S. L., Eng, S. M., Terry, M. B., Bensen, J. T., Schroeder, J., Olshan, A. F., Neugut, A. I., Ambrosone, C. B. 2005. MnSOD Val-9Ala genotype, pro- and anti-oxidant environmental modifiers, and breast cancer among women on Long Island, New York. Cancer Causes Control 16:1225–1234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gertig, D. M., Hankinson, S. E., Hough, H., Spiegelman, D., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Kelsey, K. T., Hunter, D. J. 1999. N-acetyl transferase 2 genotypes, meat intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 80:13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Goodman, J. E., Lavigne, J. A., Wu, K., Helzlsouer, K. J., Strickland, P. T., Selhub, J., Yager, J. D. 2001. COMT genotype, micronutrients in the folate metabolic pathway and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 22:1661–1665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Guy, M., Lowe, L. C., Bretherton-Watt, D., Mansi, J. L., Colston, K. W. 2003. Approaches to evaluating the association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. Recent Results Cancer Res 164:43–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Habuchi, T., Suzuki, T., Sasaki, R., Wang, L., Sato, K., Satoh, S., Akao, T., Tsuchiya, N., Shimoda, N., Wada, Y., Koizumi, A., Chihara, J., Ogawa, O., Kato, T. 2000. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia in a Japanese population. Cancer Res 60:305–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Haiman, C. A., Bernstein, L., Berg, D., Ingles, S. A., Salane, M., Ursin, G. 2002. Genetic determinants of mammographic density. Breast Cancer Res 4:R5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Haiman, C. A., Hankinson, S. E., De Vivo, I., Guillemette, C., Ishibe, N., Hunter, D. J., Byrne, C. 2003. Polymorphisms in steroid hormone pathway genes and mammographic density. Breast Cancer Res Treat 77:27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Haiman, C. A., Hankinson, S. E., Spiegelman, D., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Speizer, F. E., Kelsey, K. T., Hunter, D. J. 1999. The relationship between a polymorphism in CYP17 with plasma hormone levels and breast cancer. Cancer Res 59:1015–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hamajima, N., Iwata, H., Obata, Y., Matsuo, K., Mizutani, M., Iwase, T., Miura, S., Okuma, K., Ohashi, K., Tajima, K. 2000. No association of the 5ʹpromoter region polymorphism of CYP17 with breast cancer risk in Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 91:880–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Han, J., Hankinson, S. E., Zhang, S. M., De Vivo, I., Hunter, D. J. 2004b. Interaction between genetic variations in DNA repair genes and plasma folate on breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:520–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Han, D. F., Zhou, X., Hu, M. B., Wang, C. H., Xie, W., Tan, X. D., Zheng, F., Liu, F. 2004a. Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) polymorphism and breast cancer risk in Chinese women. Toxicol Lett 150(2):167–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Han, D. F., Zhou, X., Hu, M. B., Xie, W., Mao, Z. F., Chen, D. E., Liu, F., Zheng, F. 2005. Polymorphisms of estrogen-metabolizing genes and breast cancer risk: a multigenic study. Chin Med J (Engl) 118(18):1507–1516.Google Scholar
  70. Hannah, S. S., Norman, A. W. 1994. 1a, 25(OH)2 vitamin D3-regulated expression of the eukaryotic genome. Nutr Rev 52:376–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hefler, L. A., Tempfer, C. B., Grimm, C., Lebrecht, A., Ulbrich, E., Heinze, G., Leodolter, S., Helzlsouer, K. J., Huang, H. Y., Strickland, P. T., Hoffman, S., Alberg, A. J., Comstock, G. W., Bell, D. A. 1998. Association between CYP17 polymorphisms and the development of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:945–949.Google Scholar
  72. Helzlsouer, K. J., Selmin, O., Huang, H. Y., Strickland, P. T., Hoffman, S., Alberg, A. J., Watson, M., Comstock, G. W., Bell, D. 1998. Association between glutathione S-transferase M1, P1, and T1 genetic polymorphisms and development of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:512–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hines, L. M., Hankinson, S. E., Smith-Warner, S. A., Spiegelman, D., Kelsey, K. T., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., Hunter, D. J. 2000. A prospective study of the effect of alcohol consumption and ADH3 genotype on plasma steroid hormone levels and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:1099–1105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hirota, T., Kunitoku, N., Sasayama, T., Marumoto, T., Zhang, D., Nitta, M., Hatakeyama, K., Saya, H. 2003. Aurora-A and an interacting activator, the LIM protein Ajuba, are required for mitotic commitment in human cells. Cell 114:585–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hou, M. F., Tien, Y. C., Lin, G. T., Chen, C. J., Liu, C. S., Lin, S. Y., Huang, T. J. 2002. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with sporadic breast cancer in Taiwanese patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 74(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Huang, C. S., Chern, H. D., Chang, K. J., Cheng, C. W., Hsu, S. M., Shen, C. Y. 1999. Breast cancer risk associated with genotype polymorphism of the estrogen-metabolizing genes CYP17, CYP1A1, and COMT: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility. Cancer Res 59:4870–4875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Cancer-Preventive Agents. 2002. Weight Control and Physical Activity, IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Volume 6. Lyon, France: IARC.Google Scholar
  78. Ingles, S. A., Garcia, D. G., Wang, W., Nieters, A., Henderson, B. E., Kolonel, L. N., Haile, R. W., Coetzee, G. A. 2000. Vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer in Latinas (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11(1):25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Iwase, H., Greenman, J. M., Barnes, D. M., Hodgson, S., Bobrow, L., Mathew, C. G. 1996. Sequence variants of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene found in breast cancer patients with ER negative and progesterone receptor positive tumors. Cancer Lett 108:179–184; J Nutr 134:1134–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. James, S. Y., Mackay, A. G., Colston, K. W. 2006. Effects of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues on induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 58:395–401.Google Scholar
  81. Jerevall, P. L., Ahmadi, A., Bergman, M., Stål, O., Wingren, S. 2005. Sulfotransferase1A1 and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Anticancer Res 25(3c):2515–2517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. John, E. M., Schwartz, G. G., Koo, J., Wang, W., Ingles, S. A. 2007. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population. Am J Epidemiol 166(12):1409–1419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kallianpur, A. R., Hall, L. D., Yadav, M., Christman, B. W., Dittus, R. S., Haines, J. L., Parl, F. F., Summar, M. L. 2004. Increased prevalence of the HFE C282Y hemochromatosis allele in women with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:205–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kang, H. J., Kim, S. W., Kim, H. J., Ahn, S. J., Bae, J. Y., Park, S. K., Kang, D., Hirvonen, A., Choe, K. J., Noh, D. Y. 2002. Polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor-alpha gene and breast cancer risk. Cancer Lett 178:175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kawase, T., Matsuo, K., Suzuki, T., Hiraki, A., Watanabe, M., Iwata, H., Tanaka, H., Tajima, K. 2009. FGFR2 intronic polymorphisms interact with reproductive risk factors of breast cancer: results of a case control study in Japan. Int J Cancer 125:1946–1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kelsey, J. L., Horn-Ross, P. L. 1993. Breast cancer: magnitude of the problem and descriptive epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev 15:7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kim, S. U., Lee, K. M., Park, S. K., Yoo, K. Y., Noh, D. Y., Choe, K. J., Ahn, S. H., Hirvonen, A., Kang, D. 2004. Genetic polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase P1 and breast cancer risk. J Biochem Mol Biol 37:582–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kotsopoulos, J., Tworoger, S. S., De Vivo, I., Hankinson, S. E., Hunter, D. J., Willett, W. C., Chen, W. Y. 2009. +331G/A variant in the progesterone receptor gene, postmenopausal hormone use and risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 125:1685–1691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Krajinovic, M., Ghadirian, P., Richer, C., Sinnett, H., Gandini, S., Perret, C., Lacroix, A., Labuda, D., Sinnett, D. 2001. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in French-Canadians: role of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and gene-environment interactions. Int J Cancer 92:220–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Le Marchand, L., Donlon, T., Kolonel, L. N., Henderson, B. E., Wilkens, L. R. 2005. Estrogen metabolism-related genes and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14(8):1998–2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Le Marchand, L., Haiman, C. A., Wilkens, L. R., Kolonel, L. N., Henderson, B. E. 2004. MTHFR polymorphisms, diet, HRT, and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:2071–2077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lee, K. M., Abel, J., Ko, Y., Harth, V., Park, W. Y., Seo, J. S., Yoo, K. Y., Choi, J. Y., Shin, A., Ahn, S. H., Noh, D. Y., Hirvonen, A., Kang, D. 2003. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 19 and 1B1, alcohol use, and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Br J Cancer 88:675–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lee, K. M., Choi, J. Y., Kang, C., Kang, C. P., Park, S. K., Cho, H., Cho, D. Y., Yoo, K. Y., Noh, D. Y., Ahn, S. H., Park, C. G., Wei, Q., Kang, D. 2005a. Genetic polymorphisms of selected DNA repair genes, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res 11:4620–4626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lee, S. A., Fowke, J. H., Lu, W., Ye, C., Zheng, Y., Cai, Q., Gu, K., Gao, Y. T., Shu, X. O., Zheng, W. 2008. Cruciferous vegetables, the GSTP1 Ile105Val genetic polymorphism, and breast cancer risk. Am J of Clin Nutr 87:753–760.Google Scholar
  95. Lee, S. A., Lee, K. M., Park, W. Y., Kim, B., Nam, J., Yoo, K. Y., Noh, D. Y., Ahn, S. H., Hirvonen, A., Kang, D. 2005b. Obesity and genetic polymorphism of ERCC2 and ERCC4 as modifiers of risk of breast cancer. Exp Mol Med 37:86–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lewis, S. J., Harbord, R. M., Harris, R., Smith, G. D. 2006. Meta-analyses of observational and genetic association studies of folate intakes or levels and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 98:1607–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Li, B., Comai, L. 2000. Functional interaction between Ku and the werner syndrome protein in DNA end processing. J Biol Chem 275(37):28349–28352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lilla, C., Koehler, T., Kropp, S., Wang-Gohrke, S., Chang-Claude, J. 2005. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genotype, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by age 50 years in a German case-control study. Br J Cancer 92:2039–2041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Lissowska, J., Gaudet, M. M., Brinton, L. A., Chanock, S. J., Peplonska, B., Welch, R., Zatonski, W., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Park, S., Sherman, M., Garcia-Closas, M. 2007. Genetic polymorphisms in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and breast cancer risk: a population-based case-control study and meta-analyses. Int J Cancer 120:2696–2703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lowe, L. C., Guy, M., Mansi, J. L., Peckitt, C., Bliss, J., Wilson, R. G., Colston, K. W. 2005. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. Eur J Cancer 41(8):1164–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lu, H., Ouyang, W., Huang, C. 2006. Inflammation, a key event in cancer development. Mol Cancer Res 4:221–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lundin, A. C., Söderkvist, P., Eriksson, B., Bergman-Jungeström, M., Wingren, S. 1999. Association of breast cancer progression with a vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. South-East Sweden Breast Cancer Group. Cancer Res 59(10):2332–2334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lunn, R. M., Helzlsouer, K. J., Parshad, R., Umbach, D. M., Harris, E. L., Sanford, K. K., Bell, D. A. 2000. XPD polymorphisms: effects on DNA repair proficiency. Carcinogenesis 21:551–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. McCullough, M. L., Stevens, V. L., Diver, W. R., Feigelson, H. S., Rodriguez, C., Bostick, R. M., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E. 2007. Vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms, diet, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: a nested case-control study. Breast Cancer Res 9(1):R9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Millikan, R. C., Player, J., de Cotret, A. R., Moorman, P., Pittman, G., Vannappagari, V., Tse, C. K., Keku, T. 2004. Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-9Val polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based case-control study of African Americans and whites. Breast Cancer Res 6:R264–R274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mitrunen, K., Jourenkova, N., Kataja, V., Eskelinen, M., Kosma, V. M., Benhamou, S., Vainio, H., Uusitupa, M., Hirvonen, A. 2000. Steroid metabolism gene CYP17 polymorphism and the development of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9(12):1343–1348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mitrunen, K., Sillanpaa, P., Kataja, V., Eskelinen, M., Kosma, V. M., Benhamou, S., Uusitupa, M., Hirvonen, A. 2001. Association between manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 22:827–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mohlig, M., Boeing, H., Spranger, J., Osterhoff, M., Kroke, A., Fisher, E., Bergmann, M. M., Ristow, M., Hoffmann, K., Pfeiffer, A. F. 2004. Body mass index and C-174G interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interact in predicting type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1885–1890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Nowell, S. A., Ahn, J., Ambrosone, C. B. 2004. Gene-nutrient interactions in cancer etiology. Nutr Rev 62:427–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Park, S. K., Kang, D., Noh, D. Y., Lee, K. M., Kim, S. U., Choi, J. Y., Choi, I. M., Ahn, S. H., Choe, K. J., Hirvonen, A., Strickland, P. T., Yoo, K. Y. 2003. Reproductive factors, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphism and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 78(1):89–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Park, S. K., Yim, D. S., Yoon, K. S., Choi, I. M., Choi, J. Y., Yoo, K. Y., Noh, D. Y., Choe, K. J., Ahn, S. H., Hirvonen, A., Kang, D. 2004. Combined effect of GSTM1, GSTT1, and COMT genotypes in individual breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 88(1):55–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Park, S. K., Yoo, K. Y., Lee, S. J., Kim, S. U., Ahn, S. H., Noh, D. Y., Choe, K. J., Strickland, P. T., Hirvonen, A., Kang, D. 2000. Alcohol consumption, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Pharmacogenetics 10:301–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Piller, R., Verla-Tebit, E., Wang-Gohrke, S., Linseisen, J., Chang-Claude, J. 2006. CYP17 genotype modifies the association between lignan supply and premenopausal breast cancer risk in humans. J Nutr 136(6):1596–1603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ravn-Haren, G., Olsen, A., Tjonneland, A., Dragsted, L. O., Nexo, B. A., Wallin, H., Overvad, K., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Vogel, U. 2006. Associations between GPX1 Pro198Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Carcinogenesis 27:820–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rebbeck, T. R., Troxel, A. B., Norman, S., Bunin, G., DeMichele, A., Schinnar, R., Berlin, J. A., Strom, B. L. 2007b. Pharmacogenetic modulation of combined hormone replacement therapy by progesterone-metabolism genotypes in postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 166:1392–1399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rebbeck, T. R., Troxel, A. B., Walker, A. H., Panossian, S., Gallagher, S., Shatalova, E. G., Blanchard, R., Norman, S., Bunin, G., DeMichele, A., Berlin, M., Schinnar, R., Berlin, J. A., Strom, B. L. 2007a. Pairwise combinations of estrogen metabolism genotypes in postmenopausal breast cancer etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(3):444–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rossner, P., Jr., Terry, M. B., Gammon, M. D., Zhang, F. F., Teitelbaum, S. L., Eng, S. M., Sagiv, S. K., Gaudet, M. M., Neugut, A. I., Santella, R. M. 2006. OGG1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:811–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Schubert, E. L., Lee, M. K., Newman, B., King, M. C. 1999. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor gene and breast cancer susceptibility. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 71:21–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Semenza, J. C., Delfino, R. J., Ziogas, A., Anton-Culver, H. 2003. Breast cancer risk and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism. Breast Cancer Res Treat 77:217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Seth, P., Lunetta, K. L., Bell, D. W., Gray, H., Nasser, S. M., Rhei, E., Kaelin, C. M., Iglehart, D. J., Marks, J. R., Garber, J. E., Haber, D. A., Polyak, K. 2000. Phenol sulfotransferases: hormonal regulation, polymorphism, and age of onset of breast cancer. Cancer Res 60(24):6859–6863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Setiawan, V. W., Schumacher, F. R., Haiman, C. A., Stram, D. O., Albanes, D., Altshuler, D., Berglund, G., Buring, J., Calle, E. E., Clavel-Chapelon, F., Cox, D. G., Gaziano, J. M., Hankinson, S. E., Hayes, R. B., Henderson, B. E., Hirschhorn, J., Hoover, R., Hunter, D. J., Kaaks, R., Kolonel, L. N., Kraft, P., Ma, J., Le Marchand, L., Linseisen, J., Lund, E., Navarro, C., Overvad, K., Palli, D., Peeters, P. H., Pike, M. C., Riboli, E., Stampfer, M. J., Thun, M. J., Travis, R., Trichopoulos, D., Yeager, M., Ziegler, R. G., Spencer Feigelson, H., Chanock, S. J. 2007. CYP17 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(11):2237–2246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sharp, L., Little, J., Schofield, A. C., Pavlidou, E., Cotton, S. C., Miedzybrodzka, Z., Baird, J. O., Haites, N. E., Heys, S. D., Grubb, D. A. 2002. Folate and breast cancer: the role of polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Cancer Lett 181:65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Shatalova, E. G., Loginov, V. I., Braga, E. A., Kazubskaia, T. P., Sudomoina, M. A., Blanchard, R. L., Favorova, O. O. 2006. Association of polymorphisms in SULT1A1 and UGT1A1 Genes with breast cancer risk and phenotypes in Russian women. Mol Biol (Mosk) 40(2):263–270.Google Scholar
  124. Shin, A., Kang, D., Nishio, H., Lee, M. J., Park, S. K., Kim, S. U., Noh, D. Y., Choe, K. J., Ahn, S. H., Hirvonen, A., Kim, J. H., Yoo, K. Y. 2003. Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 80:127–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Shin, M. H., Lee, K. M., Yang, J. H., Nam, S. J., Kim, J. W., Yoo, K. Y., Park, S. K., Noh, D. Y., Ahn, S. H., Kim, B., Kang, D. 2005. Genetic polymorphism of CYP17 and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Exp Mol Med 37(1):11–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Shrubsole, M. J., Gao, Y. T., Cai, Q., Shu, X. O., Dai, Q., Hebert, J. R., Jin, F., Zheng, W. 2004. MTHFR polymorphisms, dietary folate intake, and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:190–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Shrubsole, M. J., Gao, Y. T., Cai, Q., Shu, X. O., Dai, Q., Jin, F., Zheng, W. 2006. MTR and MTRR polymorphisms, dietary intake, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:586–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Sillanpää, P., Hirvonen, A., Kataja, V., Eskelinen, M., Kosma, V. M., Uusitupa, M., Vainio, H., Mitrunen, K. 2004. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism as an important modifier of positive family history related breast cancer risk. Pharmacogenetics 14(4):239–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sillanpää, P., Kataja, V., Eskelinen, M., Kosma, V. M., Uusitupa, M., Vainio, H., Mitrunen, K., Hirvonen, A. 2005. Sulfotransferase 1A1 genotype as a potential modifier of breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. Pharmacogenet Genomics 15(10):749–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Silva, S. N., Cabral, M. N., Bezerra de Castro, G., Pires, M., Azevedo, A. P., Manita, I., Pina, J. E., Rueff, J., Gaspar, J. 2006. Breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes involved in metabolism of estrogens (CYP17, HSD17beta1, COMT and MnSOD): possible protective role of MnSOD gene polymorphism Val/Ala and Ala/Ala in women that never breast fed. Oncol Rep 16(4):781–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Sinha, R., Rothman, N. 1999. Role of well-done, grilled red meat, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in the etiology of human cancer. Cancer Lett 143:189–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Slanger, T. E., Chang-Claude, J., Wang-Gohrke, S. 2006. Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-9Val polymorphism, environmental modifiers, and risk of breast cancer in a German population. Cancer Causes Control 17:1025–1031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Slattery, M. L., Curtin, K., Sweeney, C., Wolff, R. K., Baumgartner, R. N., Baumgartner, K. B., Giuliano, A. R., Byers, T. 2008. Modifying effects of IL-6 polymorphisms on body size-associated breast cancer risk. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:339–347.Google Scholar
  134. Slattery, M. L., Sweeney, C., Herrick, J., Wolff, R., Baumgartner, K., Giuliano, A., Byers, T. 2007a. ESR1, AR, body size, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women living in the Southwestern United States. Breast Cancer Res Treat 105:327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Slattery, M. L., Sweeney, C., Wolff, R., Herrick, J., Baumgartner, K., Giuliano, A., Byers, T. 2007b. Genetic variation in IGF1, IGFBP3, IRS1, IRS2 and risk of breast cancer in women living in Southwestern United States. Breast Cancer Res Treat 104:197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Southey, M. C., Batten, L. E., McCredie, M. R., Giles, G. G., Dite, G., Hopper, J. L., Venter, D. J. 1998. Estrogen receptor polymorphism at codon 325 and risk of breast cancer in women before age forty. J Natl Cancer Inst 90:532–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Sparks, R., Ulrich, C. M., Bigler, J., Tworoger, S. S., Yasui, Y., Rajan, K. B., Porter, P., Stanczyk, F. Z., Ballard-Barbash, R., Yuan, X., Lin, M. G., McVarish, L., Aiello, E. J., McTiernan, A. 2004. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase polymorphisms, sex hormone concentrations, and tumor receptor status in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res 6(5):R488–R498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Steck, S. E., Gaudet, M. M., Britton, J. A., Teitelbaum, S. L., Terry, M. B., Neugut, A. I., Santella, R. M., Gammon, M. D. 2007. Interactions among GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms, cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 28:1954–1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Stevens, R. G. 2005. Circadian disruption and breast cancer from melatonin to clocl genes. Epidemiology 16:254–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Stevens, V. L., McCullough, M. L., Pavluck, A. L., Talbot, J. T., Feigelson, H. S., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E. 2007. Association of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes and postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1140–1147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Suzuki, T., Matsuo, K., Hirose, K., Hiraki, A., Kawase, T., Watanabe, M., Yamashita, T., Iwata, H., Tajima, K. 2008. One-carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 29:2142–2147.Google Scholar
  142. Tamimi, R. M., Hankinson, S. E., Spiegelman, D., Colditz, G. A., Hunter, D. J. 2004. Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism, plasma antioxidants, cigarette smoking, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13:989–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tang, D., Cho, S., Rundle, A., Chen, S., Phillips, D., Zhou, J., Hsu, Y., Schnabel, F., Estabrook, A., Perera, F. P. 2002. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair enzyme XPD are associated with increased levels of PAH-DNA adducts in a case-control study of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 75:159–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Tang, D., Rundle, A., Mooney, L., Cho, S., Schnabel, F., Estabrook, A., Kelly, A., Levine, R., Hibshoosh, H., Perera, F. 2003. Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) polymorphism, PAH-DNA adduct levels in breast tissue and breast cancer risk in a case-control study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 78(2):217–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Terry, M. B., Gammon, M. D., Zhang, F. F., Knight, J. A., Wang, Q., Britton, J. A., Teitelbaum, S. L., Neugut, A. I., Santella, R. M. 2006. ADH3 genotype, alcohol intake and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 27:840–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Terry, P. D., Goodman, M. 2006. Is the association between cigarette smoking and breast cancer modified by genotype? A review of epidemiologic studies and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15:602–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Terry, M. B., Knight, J. A., Zablotska, L., Wang, Q., John, E. M., Andrulis, I. L., Senie, R. T., Daly, M., Ozcelik, H., Briollais, L., Santella, R. M. 2007. Alcohol metabolism, alcohol intake, and breast cancer risk: a sister-set analysis using the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Breast Cancer Res Treat 106:281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. The MARIE-GENICA Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility for Menopausal Hormone Therapy Related Breast Cancer Risk. 2010. Postmenopausal estrogen monotherapy-associated breast cancer risk is modified by CYP17A1_-34_T>C polymorphism. Breast Cancer Res Treat 120(3):737–744.Google Scholar
  149. van der Hel, O. L., Peeters, P. H., Hein, D. W., Doll, M. A., Grobbee, D. E., Ocke, M., Bueno de Mesquita, H. B. 2004. GSTM1 null genotype, red meat consumption and breast cancer risk (The Netherlands). Cancer Causes Control 15:295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Vasconcelos, A., Medeiros, R., Veiga, I., Pereira, D., Carrilho, S., Palmeira, C., Azevedo, C., Lopes, C. S. 2002. Analysis of estrogen receptor polymorphism in codon 325 by PCR-SSCP in breast cancer: association with lymph node metastasis. Breast J 8:226–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Verla-Tebit, E., Wang-Gohrke, S., Chang-Claude, J. 2005. CYP17 5ʹ-UTR MspA1 polymorphism and the risk of premenopausal breast cancer in a German population-based case-control study. Breast Cancer Res 7(4):R455–R464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Visvanathan, K., Crum, R. M., Strickland, P. T., You, X., Ruczinski, I., Berndt, S. I., Alberg, A. J., Hoffman, S. C., Comstock, G. W., Bell, D. A., Helzlsouer, K. J. 2007. Alcohol dehydrogenase genetic polymorphisms, low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and risk of breast cancer. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:467–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Vogel, U., Christensen, J., Nexo, B. A., Wallin, H., Friis, S., Tjonneland, A. 2007. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 Pro12Ala, interaction with alcohol intake and NSAID use, in relation to risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of Danes. Carcinogenesis 28:427–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. WCRF/AICR. 1997. Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR.Google Scholar
  155. WCRF/AICR. 2007. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR.Google Scholar
  156. Wedren, S., Magnusson, C., Humphreys, K., Melhus, H., Kindmark, A., Stiger, F., Branting, M., Persson, I., Baron, J., Weiderpass, E. 2007. Associations between androgen and Vitamin D receptor microsatellites and postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(9):1775–1783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wedrén, S., Lovmar, L., Humphreys, K., Magnusson, C., Melhus, H., Syvänen, A. C., Kindmark, A., Landegren, U., Fermér, M. L., Stiger, F., Persson, I., Baron, J., Weiderpass, E. 2004. Oestrogen receptor alpha gene haplotype and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: a case control study. Breast Cancer Res 6(4):R437–R449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Weinshilboum, R. M., Otterness, D. M., Aksoy, I. A., Wood, T. C., Her, C., Raftogianis, R. B. 1997. Sulfation and sulfotransferases 1: sulfotransferase molecular biology: cDNAs and genes. FASEB J 11:3–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Weston, A., Pan, C. F., Bleiweiss, I. J., Ksieski, H. B., Roy, N., Maloney, N., Wolff, M. S. 1998. CYP17 genotype and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7:941–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Winter, S. L., Bosnoyan-Collins, L., Pinnaduwage, D., Andrulis, I. L. 2007. Expression of the circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 in sporadic and familial breast tumors. Neoplasia 9:797–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Wu, A. H., Seow, A., Arakawa, K., Van Den Berg, D., Lee, H. P., Yu, M. 2003. HSD17B1 and CYP17 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among Chinese women in Singapore. Int J Cancer 104:450–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Yaich, L., Dupont, W. D., Cavener, D. R., Parl, F. F. 1992. Analysis of the PvuII restriction fragment-length polymorphism and exon structure of the estrogen receptor gene in breast cancer and peripheral blood. Cancer Res 52:77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Yang, G., Gao, Y. T., Cai, Q. Y., Shu, X. O., Cheng, J. R., Zheng, W. 2005. Modifying effects of sulfotransferase 1A1 gene polymorphism on the association of breast cancer risk with body mass index or endogenous steroid hormones. Breast Cancer Res Treat 94(1):63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Yoo, K. Y., Kang, D., Park, S. K., Kim, S. U., Kim, S. U., Shin, A., Yoon, H., Ahn, S. H., Noh, D. Y., Choe, K. J. 2002. Epidemiology of breast cancer in Korea: occurrence, high-risk groups, and prevention. J Korean Med Sci 17:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Zhang, S. M., Willett, W. C., Selhub, J., Hunter, D. J., Giovannucci, E. L., Holmes, M. D., Colditz, G. A., Hankinson, S. E. 2003. Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:373–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Zhao, M., Lewis, R., Gustafson, D. R., Wen, W. Q., Cerhan, J. R., Zheng, W. 2001. No apparent association of GSTP1 A(313)G polymorphism with breast cancer risk among postmenopausal Iowa women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:1301–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Zheng, W., Deitz, A. C., Campbell, D. R., Wen, W. Q., Cerhan, J. R., Sellers, T. A., Folsom, A. R., Hein, D. W. 1999. N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism, cigarette smoking, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:233–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Zheng, T., Holford, T. R., Zahm, S. H., Owens, P. H., Boyle, P., Zhang, Y., Zhang, B., Wise, J. P., Sr., Stephenson, L. P., Ali-Osman, F. 2003. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 88:58–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Zheng, W., Wen, W. Q., Gustafson, D. R., Gross, M., Cerhan, J. R., Folsom, A. R. 2002. GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 74:9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Zheng, W., Xie, D., Cerhan, J. R., Sellers, T. A., Wen, W., Folsom, A. R. 2001. Sulfotransferase 1A1 polymorphism, endogenous estrogen exposure, well-done meat intake, and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Preventive Medicine and Cancer Research InstituteSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Cancer Epidemiology BranchResearch Institute, National Cancer CenterGoyang-siKorea

Personalised recommendations