The first residency in radiology in the USA was in 1915 and at MGH. The first resident was appointed for 12 months. This initiative was primarily due to the interest and enthusiasm for teaching by Holmes. That first resident was Dr. A. S. Merrill. On completion of the 1-year residency he was appointed to the staff and was given primary responsibility for the therapy section. His interest was not in therapy and he was soon transferred to diagnosis. In 1939 the American Board of Radiology increased the residency requirement to 3 years. The result was a gain from one resident for 1 year in 1915 to three residents in 1939 (one new resident/year and to thirty by 1970 for the 3-year residency). Education of young physicians in radiology explicitly included time in both diagnosis and therapy, i.e., the goal was that the radiologist be competent in all aspects of radiology.