Advertisement

Loudness pp 1-15 | Cite as

Loudness

  • Mary Florentine
Chapter
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 37)

Abstract

The topic of loudness is no longer something esoteric, discussed only in research laboratories and psychoacoustics lectures. It is mainstream in social conversation, and most people have developed an opinion about some aspect of loudness. Our daily environments are too loud and people are taking notice. In their book, One Square Inch of Silence, Hempton and Grossmann (2009) document the lack of quiet places. The fact that a book about this topic can be published by Free Press, a division of Simon and Schuster, and appear on bookshelves – from Barnes and Noble to WalMart and Sam’s Club – indicates that problems associated with loud sounds strike a resonant chord with a large segment of the population. Loud sounds intrude on our enjoyment of life and affect our performance; loud background sounds interfere with our ability to hear sounds we want to hear and can create communication problems for everyone, especially those with hearing losses (Chap. 9), children (Nelson et al. 2002), older adults (Kim et al. 2006), and non-native speakers of a language (e.g., Mayo et al. 1997; Lecumberri and Cooke 2006; Van Engen and Bradlow 2007). These combined groups add up to be a significant portion of the overall population.

Keywords

Hearing Loss Auditory Nerve Impulsive Noise Auditory Nerve Fiber Loud Sound 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ANSI-S3.4 (2007) American National Standard Procedure for the Computation of Loudness of Steady Sounds. New York: American National Standards Institute.Google Scholar
  2. Appell JE, Hohmann V, Kollmeier B (2001) Review of loudness models for normal and hearing-impaired listeners based on the model proposed by Zwicker. Z Audiol 40:140–154.Google Scholar
  3. Axelsson A, Eliasson A, Israelsson, B (1995) Hearing in pop/rock musicians: a follow-up study. Ear Hear 16:245–253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berglund B, Berglund U, Lindvall T (1976) Scaling loudness, noisiness, and annoyance of community noises. J Acoust Soc Am 60:1119–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buus S (2002) Psychophysical methods and other factors that affect the outcome of psychoacoustic measurements. In: Tranebjærg L, Christensen-Dalsgaard J, Andersen T, Poulsen T (eds), Genetics and the Function of the Auditory System: Proceedings of the 19th Danavox Symposium. Copenhagen, Denmark: Holmens Trykkeri, The Danavox Jubilee Foundation, ISBN 87–982422–9–6, pp. 183–225.Google Scholar
  6. Buus S, Klump GM, Gleich O, Langemann U (1995) An excitation-pattern model for the starling (Sturnus vulgaris). J Acoust Soc Am 98:112–124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Buus S, Florentine M, Poulsen T (1997) Temporal integration of loudness, loudness discrimination, and the form of the loudness function. J Acoust Soc Am 101:669–680.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Buus S, Müsch H, Florentine M (1998) On loudness at threshold. J Acoust Soc Am 104:399–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Delgutte B (1996) Physiological models for basic auditory percepts. In: Hawkins HL, McMullen TA, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds), Auditory Computation. New York: Springer, pp. 157–220.Google Scholar
  10. Epstein M, Florentine M (2009) Binaural loudness summation for speech and tones presented via earphones and loudspeakers. Ear Hear 30:234–237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Epstein M, Marozeau J (2010) Loudness and intensity coding. In: Plack, C (ed), OUPHAS Auditory Perception. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 45–69.Google Scholar
  12. Fastl H, Zwicker E (2007) Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models, 3rd ed. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Florentine M (1990) Education as a tool to prevent noise-induced hearing loss. Hear Instrum 41:33–34.Google Scholar
  14. Florentine M (2009) Advancements in psychophysics lead to a new understanding of loudness in normal hearing and hearing loss. In: Elliott MA, Antonijevic’ S, Berthaud S, Mulcahy P, Martyn C, Bargery B, Schmidt H, Fechner Day 2009 Proceedings of the 25 Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics. Galway: Snap Printing, pp. 83–88.Google Scholar
  15. Florentine M, Buus S (1981) An excitation-pattern model for intensity discrimination. J Acoust Soc Am 70:1646–1654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Florentine M, Heinz MG (2009) Audition: Loudness. In: Goldstein EB, Encyclopedia of Perception, Sage Publications Ltd. London. EC1Y 1SP Vol. 1, Sage, pp. 145–151.Google Scholar
  17. Florentine M, Zwicker E (1979) A model of loudness summation applied to noise-induced hearing loss. Hear Res 1:121–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Florentine M, Buus S, Bonding P (1978) Loudness of complex sounds as a function of the standard stimulus and the number of components. J Acoust Soc of Am 64:1036–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Florentine M, Buus S, Scharf B, Zwicker E (1980) Frequency selectivity in normally-hearing and hearing-impaired observers. J Speech Hear Res 23:113–132.Google Scholar
  20. Florentine M, Namba S, Kuwano S (1986) Concepts of loudness, noisiness, noise, and annoyance in the USA, Japan and England. Proc Inter-Noise 2:831–834Google Scholar
  21. Florentine M, Buus S, Hellman R (1997) A model of loudness summation applied to high-frequency hearing loss. In: Jesteadt W (ed), Modeling Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum, pp.187–197.Google Scholar
  22. Gates GA, Schmid P, Kujawa SG, Nam B, D’Agnostino R (2000) Longitudinal threshold changes in older men with audiometric notches. Hear Res 141:220–228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldstein JL (1974) Is the power law simply related to the driven spike response rate from the whole auditory nerve? In Moskowitz HR, Scharf B, Stevens SS (eds), Sensation and Measurement. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 223–229.Google Scholar
  24. Heinz MG, Young ED (2004) Response growth with sound level in auditory-nerve fibers after noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurophysiol 91:784–795.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Heinz MG, Issa JB, Young ED (2005) Auditory-nerve rate responses are inconsistent with common hypotheses for the neural correlates of loudness recruitment. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 6:91–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hempton G, Grossmann J (2009) One Square Inch of Silence. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  27. ISO 1999 (1990) Acoustics – Determination of occupational noise exposure and estimation of noise-induced hearing impairment. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  28. Kim SH, Frisina RD, Mapes FM, Hickman ED, Frisina DR (2006) Effect of age on binaural speech intelligibility in normal hearing adults. Speech Commun 48:591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kochkin S (2005) Marketrak VII: Hearing loss population tops 31 million people. Hear Rev 12:16–29.Google Scholar
  30. Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (2006) Acceleration of age-related hearing loss by early noise exposure: evidence of a misspent youth. J Neurosci 26:2115–2123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (2009) Adding insult to injury: cochlear nerve degeneration after “temporary” noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci 29:14077–14085.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuwano S, Namba S (1985) Continuous judgment of level-fluctuating sounds and the relationship between overall loudness and instantaneous loudness. Psychol Res 47:27–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuwano S, Namba S, Hashimoto T, Berglund B, Zheng D, Schick A, Höge H, Florentine M (1991) Emotional expression of noise: a cross-cultural study. J Sound Vib 151:421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kuwano S, Namba S, Florentine M, Zheng DR, Hashimoto T (1992) Factor analysis of the timbre of noise – comparison of the data obtained in three different laboratories Proc Acoust Soc Jpn N92–4–3:559–560.Google Scholar
  35. Lecumberri MLG, Cooke M (2006) Effect of masker type on native and non-native consonant perception in noise. J Acoust Soc Am 119:2445–2454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marozeau J, Florentine M (2007) Loudness growth in individual listeners with hearing losses: A review. J Acoust Soc Am 122: EL81–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. May BJ, Little N, Saylor S (2009) Loudness perception in the domestic cat: reaction time estimates of equal loudness contours and recruitment effects. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 10:295–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mayo LFH, Florentine M, Buus S (1997) Age of second-language acquisition and perception of speech in noise. J Speech Lang Hear Res 40:686–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Moore BCJ, Glasberg BR, Hess RF, Birchall JP (1985) Effects of flanking noise bands on the rate of growth of loudness of tones in normal and recruiting ears. J Acoust Soc Am 77:1505–1513.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Namba S, Kuwano S, Schick A (1986) The measurement of meaning of loudness, noisiness, and annoyance in different countries. In: Proc Int Cong Acoust, pp. C1–1.Google Scholar
  41. Namba S, Kuwano S, Schick A, Aclar A, Florentine M, Zheng D (1991) A cross-cultural study on noise problems: a comparison of the results obtained in Japan, West Germany, the USA, China and Turkey. J Sound Vib 151:471–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nelson PB, Soli SD, Seltz A (2002) Classroom Acoustics II: Acoustical Barriers to Learning. Melville, NY: Acoustical Society of America.Google Scholar
  43. Osgood CE, Suci G, Tannenbaum P (1957) The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  44. Oxenham AJ, Buus S (2000) Level discrimination of sinusoids as a function of duration and level for fixed-level, roving level, and across-frequency conditions. J Acoust Soc Am 107:1605–1614.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Petersen OJ, Lyregaard PE, Poulsen T (1977) The Round Robin Test on Evaluation of Loudness Level of Impulsive Noise: Report no. 22. Technical University of Denmark: Acoustics Laboratory.Google Scholar
  46. Pfingst BE, Hienz R, Kimm J, Miller J (1975) Reaction-time procedure for measurement of hearing. I. Suprathreshold functions. J Acoust Soc Am 57:421–430.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Pickles JO (1983) Auditory-nerve correlates of loudness summation with stimulus bandwidth in normal and pathological cochlea. Hear Res 12:239–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pickles JO (2008) An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing, 3rd ed. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group.Google Scholar
  49. Plack CJ (2005) The Sense of Hearing. New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  50. Plack CJ, Carlyon RP (1995) Loudness perception and intensity coding. In: Moore BCJ (ed), Hearing. London: Academic Press, pp. 123–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Relkin EM, Doucet JR (1997) Is loudness simply proportional to the auditory nerve spike count? J Acoust Soc Am 101: 2735– 2740.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Royster JD, Royster LH, Killion MD (1991) Sound exposure and hearing thresholds of symphony orchestra musicians. J Acoust Soc Am 89:2792–2803.Google Scholar
  53. Schafer RM (1977) The Tuning of the World. Toronto: Random House.Google Scholar
  54. Scharf B (1964) Partial masking. Acustica 14:17–23.Google Scholar
  55. Scharf B (1978) Loudness. In: Catrerette EC, Friedman MP (Eds.), Handbook of Perception: IV. Hearing. New York: Academic Press, pp. 187–242.Google Scholar
  56. Scharf B (1997) Loudness. In: Crocker MJ, Encyclopedia of Acoustic: III. New York: Wiley, pp. 1481–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schick A, Höge H (1996) Cross-cultural psychoacoustics. In: Fastl H, Kuwano S, Schick A, Recent Trends in Hearing Research: Bibliotheks-und Informations-system der Universität Oldenburg. University of Oldenburg Press, pp. 287–314.Google Scholar
  58. Stebbins WC (1966) Auditory reaction time and the derivation of equal loudness contours for the monkey. J Exp Anal Behav 9:135–142.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Stebbins WC, Miller JM (1964) Reaction time as a function of stimulus intensity for the monkey. J Exp Anal Behav 7:309–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Stevens SS (1934) The attributes of tones. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 20:457–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Thompson E (2002) The Soundscape of Modernity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  62. Van Engen KJ, Bradlow AR (2007) Sentence recognition in native- and foreign-language multi-talker background noise. J Acoust Soc Am 121:519–526.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Wagner E, Florentine M, Buus S, McCormack J (2004) Spectral loudness summation and simple reaction time. J Acoust Soc Am 116:1681–1686.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ward LM (1987) Remembrance of sounds past: memory and psychophysical scaling. J Exp Psychol Human Percept Perf 13:216–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zahorik P, Wightman FL (2001) Loudness constancy with varying sound source distance. Nat Neurosci 4:78–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology with joint appointment in Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations