Experimental Studies of Mesoscopic States

  • Minoru Fujimoto


Mesoscopic states in crystals can be characterized by the phase variable, which is observable from condensates pinned by intrinsic and extrinsic potentials. Condensates in crystals are primarily longitudinal in one dimension, although showing transversal features as well in practical crystals. Except for thermal and mechanical measurements, such mesoscopic condensates can generally be studied by sampling experiments. Experiments are therefore focused on their frequency dispersion and pseudospin arrangement that vary with temperature for \(T < {T_{\rm c}}\). Samplings can be performed by using photons, neutrons, nuclear and paramagnetic probes, constituting basic techniques in contemporary physics of solid materials. These probes can sample specific parts of constituents selectively; photons are generally sensitive to order variables, neutrons are useful for studying displacements of heavy constituents, and magnetic resonance probes yield information about local structural changes, which are all complementary. In this chapter, such experiments as X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, light and neutron inelastic scatterings, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are outlined for condensate studies with relevant results to substantiate theoretical arguments.


Elastic Scattering Inelastic Scattering Neutron Inelastic Scattering Phase Fluctuation Crystalline Field 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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