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The Ecology of Exudate Production and Exudate Feeding in Saguinus and Callimico

  • Paul A. Garber
  • Leila M. Porter
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

Abstract

Callitrichines are small-bodied New World primates characterized by anatomical, behavioral, and/or physiological adaptations that enable individuals to exploit plant exudates. However, little is known concerning rates of exudate production and availability of exudates to primate consumers. In this investigation, we present data on patterns of exudate feeding in a mixed species troop of tamarins (Saguinus mystax and S. fuscicollis) in northeastern Peru, and a group of callimicos (Callimico goeldii) in northwestern Bolivia. In addition, we collected data on the amount and renewal rate of exudates produced from naturally occurring and experimentally induced wounds to tree species exploited by Saguinus and Callimico. Our results indicate that exudates are available to nongouging primate foragers during most or all months of the year. In Saguinus, exudates from tree trunks, Parkia pods, and holes gouged by pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea) accounted for 16.3% of total plant feeding and foraging time. In the case of Callimico, stilt root exudates, Parkia pod exudates, and trunk exudates accounted for 35% of plant feeding time. Daily exudate production on individual trees in Bolivia (n = 17) varied from 0 to 10.75 g/day. Total monthly trunk exudate production in naturally occurring wounds present on sample trees in Peru (n = 5) ranged from 0 to 369 g. Pod exudates were available principally during the dry season, whereas trunk exudates were available during all months of the year. We argue that exudates represent a reliable and renewable resource for nongouging callitrichines, and that tamarins and callimicos effectively track the location, availability, and productivity of trunk, stilt root, and pod exudate sources in their home range.

Keywords

Home Range Ripe Fruit Lion Tamarin Study Troop Mustached Tamarin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the governments of Peru and Bolivia for permission to conduct this research. Assistance in data analysis was provided by Martin Kowalewski. Chrissie McKenney and Edilio Nacimento provided assistance with data collection in the field. This research was funded through grants from the National Science Foundation, Earthwatch, the University of Illinois, the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, the Chicago Zoological Society, the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Fund, the Primate Action Fund, Northern Illinois University, and a National Geographic Research and Exploration grant. PAG wishes to thank Jenni Garber, Sara Garber, and Chrissie McKenney for their love and unconditional support.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

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