Detection and Measurement of Cardiac Ion Channels

  • Gwilym M. Morris
  • Mark R. Boyett
  • Joseph Yanni
  • Rudolf Billeter
  • Halina Dobrzynski


Since the 1950s, technological advances have forged molecular biology into one of the most powerful fields of science. The primary molecular specializations of the cardiac conduction system are a lower expression of the fast Na+ channel (Nav1.5), the background K+ channel (Kir2.1), and the high conductance connexin (Cx43), but with a higher expression of the pacemaker channel (HCN4) and the alternative L-type Ca2+ channel (Cav1.3). Therefore, it is possible to investigate gene transcription and protein expression for these channels. This chapter describes the use of in situ hybridization, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry to study cardiac ion channel expression.


Acetic Anhydride Laser Capture Microdissection Target cDNA Cardiac Conduction System Primer Dime Formation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate


bovine serum albumin


L-type Ca2+ channel in the heart, mainly found in the cardiac conduction system


complementary DNA


critical threshold


main gap junction channel in the heart




deoxyribonucleic acid




ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


fluorescein isothiocyanate


main ion channel responsible for the pacemaker current in the heart, I f


immunoglobulin G


immunoglobulin M


inward rectifier K+ channel, responsible for the resting potential in the heart


messenger RNA


cardiac Na+ channel


nitro blue tetrazolium


optimal cutting temperature compound


phosphate-buffered saline






quantitative polymerase chain reaction


ribonucleic acid




ribosomal RNA


sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel in heart


sodium chloride and sodium citrate solution


melting temperature




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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gwilym M. Morris
  • Mark R. Boyett
  • Joseph Yanni
  • Rudolf Billeter
  • Halina Dobrzynski
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiovascular Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

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