Use of Large Animal Models for Cardiac Electrophysiology Studies
Large animal models can be utilized to recreate many cardiac electrophysiological disease states and procedures and to test new devices and imaging techniques. In this chapter, a brief summary of regulatory principles regarding animal models is presented. Factors for choosing an animal model, such as growth rate, ease of handling, and comparative cardiac anatomy, are detailed, with the cardiac anatomy presented in terms of common electrophysiologic procedures: lead placement, His pacing, and ablation studies. General anesthesia information is then provided, along with common methods of accessing the heart and invasive monitoring techniques. Finally, common electrophysiologic interventions are discussed such as different techniques for creating common pathologies including congestive heart failure models, acute and chronic atrial fibrillation models, ventricular fibrillation, and myocardial infarction (ischemia).
KeywordsAtrial Fibrillation Pulmonary Vein Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Coronary Sinus Large Animal Model
This work was partially funded by Grant Number T32AR007612 from the National Institute of Health.
- l.NIH Publication Number 08-6436. Medical Research with Animals. http://science.education.nih.gov/AnimalResearchFS06.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2009.
- 2.Fox JG. Laboratory animal medicine, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press/Elsevier; 2002.Google Scholar
- 5.Hill AJ, Iaizzo PA. Comparative cardiac anatomy. In: Iaizzo PA, editor. Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices, 2nd ed. New York: Humana Press; 2009.Google Scholar
- 14.Evans HE. The heart and arteries. In: Miller ME, Evans HE, editors. Miller’s anatomy of the dog, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1993, p. 586.Google Scholar
- 33.Wijffels MC, Kirchhof CJ, Dorland R, Power J, Allessie MA. Electrical remodeling due to atrial fibrillation in chronically instrumented conscious goats: roles of neurohumoral changes, ischemia, atrial stretch, and high rate of electrical activation. Circulation 197;96:3710–20.Google Scholar
- 35.Sridhar A, Nishijima Y, Terentyev D, et al. Repolarization abnormalities and afterdepolarizations in a canine model of sudden cardiac death. Am J Physiol 2008;295:R1463–72.Google Scholar