Cloacal Exstrophy



Cloacal exstrophy represents a complex congenital anomaly that involves the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and central nervous systems. The omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects (OEIS) complex is believed to arise from a single localized defect in the early development of the mesoderm that ultimately contributes to the infra-umbilical mesenchyme, cloacal septum, and caudal vertebrae. The incidence of OEIS complex has been reported to be approximately 1 in 250,000 live births and is known by a number of other terms, including ectopia cloacae, vesico-intestinal ­fissure, exstrophia splanchnica, and cloacal exstrophy. First described by Litré in 1709, this multi-system malformation represents the most severe form of the exstrophy-epispadias sequence ranging from phallic separation with epispadias, pubic diastasis, exstrophy of the bladder, cloacal exstrophy, and OEIS complex.


Bladder Neck Bladder Exstrophy Urethral Plate Cloacal Exstrophy Cloacal Membrane 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of UrologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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