Umbilical Diorders and Anomalies

  • Adam J. Kaye
  • Daniel J. Ostlie


An abnormal umbilicus represents one of the most frequent indications for pediatric surgical consultation. In the newborn, the majority of umbilical abnormalities are related to the embryologic development and function of the umbilicus. The formation of the umbilical region of the abdominal wall begins in the fourth week of gestation. The embryo attaches to the primitive placenta by a stalk that will eventually house the umbilical vessels and the allantois, which together form the umbilical cord. The vitelline duct also briefly runs within this stalk connecting the yolk sac as it divides into intracoelomic and extracoelomic portions by the in-folding embryo. The intracoelomic portion forms the alimentary canal and the remaining extracoelomic yolk sac feeds the embryo through the vitelline duct. This duct normally closes between the fifth and seventh week of gestation as the placenta begins to provide nutritional support to the embryo.


Umbilical Cord Necrotizing Fasciitis Absorbable Suture Umbilical Hernia Excess Skin 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric SurgeryChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansas CityUSA

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