Parenteral nutrition has advanced significantly since it was first developed by Shohl and colleagues in 1939. Numerous early problems included allergic reactions to heterogeneous protein hydrosylates, side effects from intravenous fat preparations, and sclerosing of peripheral veins due to hyperosmolar infusions. Over time, protein hydrosylates were replaced by amino acid preparations, the development of Intralipid allowed greater caloric density to be delivered isotonically, and the ability to deliver nutrients via central venous access proved to be invaluable. When used properly, parenteral nutrition can provide substantial benefit to pediatric surgical patients, but complications and comorbidities are still commonly encountered and need to be considered very carefully prior to instituting intravenous nutritional therapy.
KeywordsParenteral Nutrition Enteral Feeding Short Bowel Syndrome Rest Energy Expenditure Central Venous Access
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