Respiratory Failure and Mechanical Ventilation

  • Todd J. Kilbaugh


Acute lung injury develops in response to a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease processes, ultimately resulting in widespread alveolar-capillary leak with extravasation of protein-rich, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This acute phase leads to atelectasis, consolidation, surfactant degradation, and ultimately decreased lung compliance with progressive hypoxemia. Further progression of lung injury leads to a chronic stage, also known as the fibroproliferative stage, characterized by improvement in compliance despite continued poor lung function. Poor compliance at this stage is due to fibrosis and thickening of the lung interstitium. If the patient survives, the acute and fibroproliferative (chronic) stages, his or her lung function can vary from complete recovery to substantial long-lasting pulmonary functional deficits.


Lung Injury Tidal Volume Acute Lung Injury Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Critical CareUniversity of Pennsylvania, Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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