Conjoined Twins



Conjoined twins are among the rarest developmental anomalies with incidence estimates ranging from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 200,000 births. Most of the sets identified prenatally die either during pregnancy (25%) or within 24 h of birth (50%). While it is claimed that the incidence among stillborns is equal between boys and girls, girls predominate 3:1 among the live-born sets.


Body Wall Pulmonary Artery Stenosis Argon Beam Coagulator Craniopagus Twin Body Wall Defect 

Suggested Reading

  1. Hensel A and B. Conjoined Twins, Abby and Brittany Hensel Turn 16. 2006.
  2. MacKenzie TC, Crombleholme TM, Johnson MP, et al. The natural history of prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:303–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  4. Pearn J. Bioethical issues in caring for conjoined twins and their parents. Lancet. 2001;357:1968–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Rode H, Fieggen AG, Brown RA, et al. Four decades of conjoined twins at Red Cross Children’s Hospital – lessons learned. S Afr Med J. 2006;96:931–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Spencer R. Conjoined twins. In: Ashcraft KW, editor. Pediatric surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 2000. p. 1040–53.Google Scholar
  7. Spitz L, Kiely EM. Conjoined twins. JAMA. 2003;289:1307–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Waisel DB. Moral permissibility as a guide for decision making about conjoined twins. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:41–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric SurgeryStanford University School of Medicine, Lucile Packard Children’s HospitalStanfordUSA

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