• David R. Andes
  • William E. Dismukes


The introduction of the azole class of antifungal drugs with the licensing of miconazole in 1979 marked the beginning of a new era in therapy for systemic fungal diseases. Although miconazole, an intravenous formulation associated with significant toxicity, is no longer commercially available, it set the stage for the development and subsequent licensing of three oral azole drugs: ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole [1]. For many systemic mycoses, these drugs have been effective and safe alternatives to the older antifungal drugs – amphotericin B, a member of the polyene class and for years the so-called “gold standard” of therapy, and flucytosine, a fluorinated pyrimidine. Ketoconazole, introduced in 1981, fluconazole (1990), and itraconazole (1992) have been attractive agents because of their excellent spectrum of activity against Candida species and endemic fungi and their overall efficacy, safety, and ease of oral administration. However, these drugs for the most part lack significant activity against mould pathogens, an important group of emerging opportunistic fungi. Consequently, the past several years have ­witnessed the development of an exciting group of second-generation triazole drugs, which possess an expanded spectrum of activity, especially against various moulds and resistant Candida species. Voriconazole, approved in 2002, is the first of these to become commercially available; posaconazole was most recently licensed – in 2006 [2, 3]. Our purpose in this chapter is to compare and contrast the pharmacologic properties of the older oral azoles and the newer triazoles and to provide perspective on the clinical indications for these agents. Since ketoconazole is the oldest azole and now the least used, our comments about ketoconazole will be limited.


Candida Species Invasive Aspergillosis Invasive Fungal Infection Invasive Candidiasis Cryptococcal Meningitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Como JA, Dismukes WE. Oral azole drugs as systemic antifungal therapy. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:263–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johnson LB, Kauffman CA. Voriconazole: a new triazole antifungal agent. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:630–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nagappan V, Deresinski S. Reviews of anti-infective agents: ­posaconazole: a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1610–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saag MS, Dismukes WE. Azole antifungal agents: emphasis on new triazoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988;32:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Willems L, van der Geest R, de Beule K. Itraconazole oral solution and intravenous formulations: a review of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001;26:159–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hostetler JS, Hanson LH, Stevens DA. Effect of cyclodextrin on the pharmacology of antifungal oral azoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992;36:477–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stevens DA. Itraconazole in cyclodextrin solution. Pharmacotherapy. 1999;19:603–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Szente L, Szejtli J. Highly soluble cyclodextrin derivatives: chemistry, properties, and trends in development. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 1999;36:17–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vanden Bossche H. Biochemical targets for antifungal azole derivatives: hypothesis on the mode of action. Curr Top Med Mycol. 1985;1:313–51.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Munayyer HK, Mann PA, Chau AS, et al. Posaconazole is a potent inhibitor of sterol 14alpha-demethylation in yeasts and molds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3690–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heimark L, Shipkova P, Greene J, et al. Mechanism of azole antifungal activity as determined by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric monitoring of ergosterol biosynthesis. J Mass Spectrom. 2002;37:265–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sanati H, Belanger P, Fratti R, Ghannoum M. A new triazole, voriconazole (UK-109, 496), blocks sterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:2492–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hitchcock CA, Dickinson K, Brown SB, Evans EG, Adams DJ. Interaction of azole antifungal antibiotics with cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase purified from Candida albicans. Biochem J. 1990;266:475–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Manavathu EK, Cutright JL, Chandrasekar PH. Organism-dependent fungicidal activities of azoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:3018–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Andes D, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:503–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Presterl E, Graninger W. Efficacy and safety of fluconazole in the treatment of systemic fungal infections in pediatric patients. Multicentre Study Group. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1994;13:347–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Groll AH, Wood L, Roden M, et al. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of cyclodextrin itraconazole in pediatric patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2554–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    de Repentigny L, Ratelle J, Leclerc JM, et al. Repeated-dose pharmacokinetics of an oral solution of itraconazole in infants and children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:404–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abdel-Rahman SM, Jacobs RF, Massarella J, et al. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenous itraconazole and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in infants, children, and adolescents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2668–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Walsh TJ, Lutsar I, Driscoll T, et al. Voriconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis, scedosporiosis and other invasive fungal infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:240–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Walsh TJ, Karlsson MO, Driscoll T, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous voriconazole in children after single- or multiple-dose administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:2166–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Groll AH, Roilides E, Walsh TJ. Pediatric pharmacology of ­antifungal agents. Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2008;2:49–56.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cornely OA, Maertens J, Winston DJ, et al. Posaconazole vs. fluconazole or itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:348–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ullmann AJ, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, et al. Posaconazole or fluconazole for prophylaxis in severe graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:335–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thorpe JE, Baker N, Bromet-Petit M. Effect of oral antacid administration on the pharmacokinetics of oral fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34:2032–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lazar JD, Wilner KD. Drug interactions with fluconazole. Rev Infect Dis. 1990;12 Suppl 3:S327–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zimmermann T, Yeates RA, Laufen H, Pfaff G, Wildfeuer A. Influence of concomitant food intake on the oral absorption of two triazole antifungal agents, itraconazole and fluconazole. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;46:147–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dodds Ashley ES, Lewis R, Lewis JS, Martin C, Andes D. Pharmacology of systemic antifungal agents. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43(S1):S28–39.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lange D, Pavao JH, Wu J, Klausner M. Effect of a cola beverage on the bioavailability of itraconazole in the presence of H2 blockers. J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;37:535–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Peer A, Woestenborghs R, Heykants J, Gasparini R, Gauwenbergh G. The effects of food and dose on the oral systemic availability of itraconazole in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989;36:423–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Prentice AG, Glasmacher A. Making sense of itraconazole pharmacokinetics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56 Suppl 1:i17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Purkins L, Wood N, Kleinermans D, Greenhalgh K, Nichols D. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of multiple-dose oral voriconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56 Suppl 1:17–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Courtney R, Wexler D, Radwanski E, Lim J, Laughlin M. Effect of food on the relative bioavailability of two oral formulations of ­posaconazole in healthy adults. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;57:218–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barone JA, Koh JG, Bierman RH, et al. Food interaction and steady-state pharmacokinetics of itraconazole capsules in healthy male volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993;37:778–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Barone JA, Moskovitz BL, Guarnieri J, et al. Food interaction and steady-state pharmacokinetics of itraconazole oral solution in healthy volunteers. Pharmacotherapy. 1998;18:295–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Krishna G, Moton A, Ma L, Medlock MM, McLeod J. Pharmacokinetics and absorption of posaconazole oral suspension under various gastric conditions in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:958–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Courtney R, Radwanski E, Lim J, Laughlin M. Pharmacokinetics of posaconazole coadministered with antacid in fasting or nonfasting healthy men. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:804–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Alffenaar JW, van Assen S, van der Werf TS, Kosterink JG, Uges DR. Omeprazole significantly reduces posaconazole serum trough level. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ezzet F, Wexler D, Courtney R, Krishna G, Lim J, Laughlin M. Oral bioavailability of posaconazole in fasted healthy subjects: comparison between three regimens and basis for clinical dosage recommendations. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44:211–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Courtney R, Pai S, Laughlin M, Lim J, Batra V. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of oral posaconazole administered in single and multiple doses in healthy adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2788–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haria M, Bryson HM, Goa KL. Itraconazole. A reappraisal of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in the management of superficial fungal infections. Drugs. 1996;51:585–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Grant SM, Clissold SP. Itraconazole. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in superficial and systemic mycoses. Drugs. 1989;37:310–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Heykants J, Van Peer A, Lavrijsen K, Meuldermans W, Woestenborghs R, Cauwenbergh G. Pharmacokinetics of oral ­antifungals and their clinical implications. Br J Clin Pract Suppl. 1990;71:50–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Heykants J, Van Peer A, Van de Velde V, et al. The clinical pharmacokinetics of itraconazole: an overview. Mycoses. 1989;32 Suppl 1:67–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Purkins L, Wood N, Greenhalgh K, Eve MD, Oliver SD, Nichols D. The pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous voriconazole - a novel wide-spectrum antifungal agent. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56 Suppl 1:2–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Purkins L, Wood N, Ghahramani P, Greenhalgh K, Allen MJ, Kleinermans D. Pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole following intravenous- to oral-dose escalation regimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2546–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Poirier JM, Hardy S, Isnard F, Tilleul P, Weissenburger J, Cheymol G. Plasma itraconazole concentrations in patients with neutropenia: advantages of a divided daily dosage regimen. Ther Drug Monit. 1997;19:525–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Debruyne D. Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in superficial and systemic mycoses. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1997;33:52–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thaler F, Bernard B, Tod M, et al. Fluconazole penetration in cerebral parenchyma in humans at steady state. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:1154–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Walsh TJ, Foulds G, Pizzo PA. Pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of fluconazole in rabbits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33:467–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Foulds G, Wajszczuk C, Weidler DJ, Garg DJ, Gibson P. Steady state parenteral kinetics of fluconazole in man. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988;544:427–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shiba K, Saito A, Miyahara T. Safety and pharmacokinetics of single oral and intravenous doses of fluconazole in healthy subjects. Clin Ther. 1990;12:206–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Houang ET, Chappatte O, Byrne D, Macrae PV, Thorpe JE. Fluconazole levels in plasma and vaginal secretions of patients after a 150-milligram single oral dose and rate of eradication of infection in vaginal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34:909–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Savani DV, Perfect JR, Cobo LM, Durack DT. Penetration of new azole compounds into the eye and efficacy in experimental Candida endophthalmitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987;31:6–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Larosa E, Cauwenbergh G, Cilli P, Woestenborghs R, Heykants J. Itraconazole pharmacokinetics in the female genital tract: plasma and tissue levels in patients undergoing hysterectomy after a single dose of 200 mg itraconazole. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1986;23:85–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    De Doncker P, Decroix J, Pierard GE, et al. Antifungal pulse therapy for onychomycosis. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigation of monthly cycles of 1-week pulse therapy with itraconazole. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132:34–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lutsar I, Roffey S, Troke P. Voriconazole concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue of guinea pigs and immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:728–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Thiel MA, Zinkernagel AS, Burhenne J, Kaufmann C, Haefeli WE. Voriconazole concentration in human aqueous humor and plasma during topical or combined topical and systemic administration for fungal keratitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:239–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hariprasad SM, Mieler WF, Holz ER, et al. Determination of vitreous, aqueous, and plasma concentration of orally administered voriconazole in humans. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:42–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Perfect JR, Cox GM, Dodge RK, Schell WA. In vitro and in vivo efficacies of the azole SCH56592 against Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996;40:1910–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pitisuttithum P, Negroni R, Graybill JR, et al. Activity of posaconazole in the treatment of central nervous system fungal infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;56:745–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cousin L, Berre ML, Launay-Vacher V, Izzedine H, Deray G. Dosing guidelines for fluconazole in patients with renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:2227–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Valtonen M, Tiula E, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of continuous ­venovenous haemofiltration and haemodiafiltration on the elimination of fluconazole in patients with acute renal failure. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997;40:695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Muhl E. Antimycotic drugs under continuous renal replacement therapy. Mycoses. 2005;48 Suppl 1:56–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Muhl E, Martens T, Iven H, Rob P, Bruch HP. Influence of continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration and continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;56:671–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Grant SM, Clissold SP. Fluconazole. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in superficial and systemic mycoses. Drugs. 1990;39:877–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nicolau DP, Crowe H, Nightingale CH, Quintiliani R. Effect of continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration on the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole. Pharmacotherapy. 1994;14:502–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weiss J, Ten Hoevel MM, Burhenne J, et al. CYP2C19 genotype is a major factor contributing to the highly variable pharmacokinetics of voriconazole. J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;49:196–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hoffman HL, Ernst EJ, Klepser ME. Novel triazole antifungal agents. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000;9:593–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sabo JA, Abdel-Rahman SM. Voriconazole: a new triazole antifungal. Ann Pharmacother. 2000;34:1032–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hardin TC, Graybill JR, Fetchick R, Woestenborghs R, Rinaldi MG, Kuhn JG. Pharmacokinetics of itraconazole following oral administration to normal volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988;32:1310–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Boelaert J, Schurgers M, Matthys E, et al. Itraconazole pharmacokinetics in patients with renal dysfunction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988;32:1595–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Theuretzbacher U, Ihle F, Derendorf H. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of voriconazole. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45:649–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Alffenaar JW, de Vos T, Uges DR, Daenen SM. High voriconazole trough levels in relation to hepatic function: how to adjust the dosage? Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;67:262–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Peng LW, Lien YH. Pharmacokinetics of single, oral-dose voriconazole in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45:162–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fuhrmann V, Schenk P, Jaeger W, et al. Pharmacokinetics of ­voriconazole during continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:1085–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Krieter P, Flannery B, Musick T, Gohdes M, Martinho M, Courtney R. Disposition of posaconazole following single-dose oral administration in healthy subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3543–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Courtney R, Sansone A, Smith W, et al. Posaconazole pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability in subjects with varying degrees of chronic renal disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;45:185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Andes D, Pascual A, Marchetti O. Antifungal therapeutic drug monitoring: established and emerging indications. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:24–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Krishna G, Sansone-Parsons A, Martinho M, Kantesaria B, Pedicone L. Posaconazole plasma concentrations in juvenile patients with invasive fungal infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:812–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Walsh TJ, Raad I, Patterson TF, et al. Treatment of invasive aspergillosis with posaconazole in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of conventional therapy: an externally controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:2–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gubbins PO, Krishna G, Sansone-Parsons A, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of oral posaconazole in neutropenic stem cell transplant recipients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1993–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Desta Z, Zhao X, Shin JG, Flockhart DA. Clinical significance of the cytochrome P450 2C19 genetic polymorphism. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41:913–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Smith J, Safdar N, Knasinski V, et al. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1570–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Trifilio S, Ortiz R, Pennick G, et al. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;35:509–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Boyd AE, Modi S, Howard SJ, Moore CB, Keevil BG, Denning DW. Adverse reactions to voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1241–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Berenguer J, Ali NM, Allende MC, et al. Itraconazole for experimental pulmonary aspergillosis: comparison with amphotericin B, interaction with cyclosporin A, and correlation between therapeutic response and itraconazole concentrations in plasma. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994;38:1303–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Denning DW, Tucker RM, Hanson LH, Stevens DA. Treatment of invasive aspergillosis with itraconazole. Am J Med. 1989;86:791–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Denning DW, Tucker RM, Hanson LH, Hamilton JR, Stevens DA. Itraconazole therapy for cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcosis. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:2301–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tucker RM, Denning DW, Arathoon EG, Rinaldi MG, Stevens DA. Itraconazole therapy for nonmeningeal coccidioidomycosis: clinical and laboratory observations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:593–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Warnock DW, Turner A, Burke J. Comparison of high performance liquid chromatographic and microbiological methods for determination of itraconazole. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988;21:93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Odds FC, Dupont B, Rinaldi MG, Stevens DA, Warnock DW, Woestenborghs R. Bioassays for itraconazole blood levels: an interlaboratory collaborative study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;43:723–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Boogaerts MA, Verhoef GE, Zachee P, Demuynck H, Verbist L, De Beule K. Antifungal prophylaxis with itraconazole in prolonged neutropenia: correlation with plasma levels. Mycoses. 1989;32 Suppl 1:103–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tricot G, Joosten E, Boogaerts MA, Vande Pitte J, Cauwenbergh G. Ketoconazole vs. itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with severe granulocytopenia: preliminary results of two nonrandomized studies. Rev Infect Dis. 1987;9 Suppl 1:S94–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Glasmacher A, Hahn C, Molitor E, Marklein G, Sauerbruch T, Schmidt-Wolf IG. Itraconazole trough concentrations in ­antifungal prophylaxis with six different dosing regimens using ­hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin oral solution or coated-pellet capsules. Mycoses. 1999;42:591–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Glasmacher A, Hahn C, Leutner C, et al. Breakthrough invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients after prophylaxis with itraconazole. Mycoses. 1999;42:443–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rex JH, Pfaller MA, Galgiani JN, et al. Development of interpretive breakpoints for antifungal susceptibility testing: conceptual framework and analysis of in vitro-in vivo correlation data for fluconazole, itraconazole, and Candida infections. Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:235–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Smith J, Andes D. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antifungals: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. Ther Drug Monit. 2008;30:167–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pascual A, Calandra T, Bolay S, Buclin T, Bille J, Marchetti O. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with invasive mycoses improves efficacy and safety outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:201–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Trifilio S, Singhal S, Williams S, et al. Breakthrough fungal infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients on prophylactic voriconazole. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:451–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Krishna G, Martinho M, Chandrasekar P, Ullmann AJ, Patino H. Pharmacokinetics of oral posaconazole in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1627–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wood N, Tan K, Purkins L, et al. Effect of omeprazole on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of voriconazole. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56 Suppl 1:56–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Brüggemann RJM, Alffenaar JC, Blijlevens NMA, et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of azoles. Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2008;2:20–7.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bruggemann RJ, Alffenaar JW, Blijlevens NM, et al. Clinical relevance of the pharmacokinetic interactions of azole antifungal drugs with other coadministered agents. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1441–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lomaestro BM, Piatek MA. Update on drug interactions with azole antifungal agents. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32:915–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Piscitelli SC, Gallicano KD. Interactions among drugs for HIV and opportunistic infections. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:984–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kuypers DR, Claes K, Evenepoel P, Vanrenterghem Y. Clinically relevant drug interaction between voriconazole and tacrolimus in a primary renal allograft recipient. Transplantation. 2006;81:1750–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Marty FM, Lowry CM, Cutler CS, et al. Voriconazole and sirolimus coadministration after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:552–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Purkins L, Wood N, Kleinermans D, Nichols D. Voriconazole potentiates warfarin-induced prothrombin time prolongation. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56 Suppl 1:24–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Purkins L, Wood N, Ghahramani P, Love ER, Eve MD, Fielding A. Coadministration of voriconazole and phenytoin: pharmacokinetic interaction, safety, and toleration. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56 Suppl 1:37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Romero AJ, Le Pogamp P, Nilsson LG, Wood N. Effect of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in renal transplant patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002;71:226–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Saari TI, Laine K, Leino K, Valtonen M, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. Effect of voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and oral midazolam. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;79:362–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Saari TI, Laine K, Bertilsson L, Neuvonen PJ, Olkkola KT. Voriconazole and fluconazole increase the exposure to oral diazepam. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63:941–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Nivoix Y, Leveque D, Herbrecht R, Koffel JC, Beretz L, Ubeaud-Sequier G. The enzymatic basis of drug-drug interactions with systemic triazole antifungals. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47:779–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Albengres E, Le Louet H, Tillement JP. Systemic antifungal agents. Drug interactions of clinical significance. Drug Saf. 1998;18:83–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Crane JK, Shih HT. Syncope and cardiac arrhythmia due to an interaction between itraconazole and terfenadine. Am J Med. 1993;95:445–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pohjola-Sintonen S, Viitasalo M, Toivonene L, Neuvonen P. Torsades de pointes after terfenadine-itraconazole interaction. BMJ (Clin Res Ed). 1993;306:186.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Olkkola KT, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Midazolam should be avoided in patients receiving the systemic antimycotics ketoconazole or itraconazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;55:481–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bermudez M, Fuster JL, Llinares E, Galera A, Gonzalez C. Itraconazole-related increased vincristine neurotoxicity: case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2005;27:389–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Takahashi N, Kameoka Y, Yamanaka Y, et al. Itraconazole oral solution enhanced vincristine neurotoxicity in five patients with malignant lymphoma. Intern Med. 2008;47:651–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jeong S, Nguyen PD, Desta Z. Comprehensive in vitro analysis of voriconazole inhibition of eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: major effect on CYPs 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, and 3A. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:541–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wexler D, Courtney R, Richards W, Banfield C, Lim J, Laughlin M. Effect of posaconazole on cytochrome P450 enzymes: a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2004;21:645–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Johnson MD, Hamilton CD, Drew RH, Sanders LL, Pennick GJ, Perfect JR. A randomized comparative study to determine the effect of omeprazole on the peak serum concentration of itraconazole oral solution. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:453–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Krishna G, Parsons A, Kantesaria B, Mant T. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole and rifabutin following co-administration to healthy men. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:545–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Krishna G, Sansone-Parsons A, Kantesaria B. Drug interaction assessment following concomitant administration of posaconazole and phenytoin in healthy men. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:1415–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zilly W, Breimer DD, Richter E. Pharmacokinetic interactions with rifampicin. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1977;2:61–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jaruratanasirikul S, Sriwiriyajan S. Effect of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in normal volunteers and AIDS patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998;54:155–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Drayton J, Dickinson G, Rinaldi MG. Coadministration of rifampin and itraconazole leads to undetectable levels of serum itraconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18:266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ducharme MP, Slaughter RL, Warbasse LH, et al. Itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole serum concentrations are reduced more than tenfold by phenytoin. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995;58:617–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Tucker RM, Denning DW, Hanson LH, et al. Interaction of azoles with rifampin, phenytoin, and carbamazepine: in vitro and clinical observations. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14:165–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ. Effects of the antifungal agents on oxidative drug metabolism: clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000;38:111–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Miyama T, Takanaga H, Matsuo H, et al. P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of itraconazole across the blood-brain barrier. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:1738–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bohme A, Ganser A, Hoelzer D. Aggravation of vincristine-induced neurotoxicity by itraconazole in the treatment of adult ALL. Ann Hematol. 1995;71:311–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kauffman CA, Bagnasco FA. Digoxin toxicity associated with itraconazole therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;15:886–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Rex J. Itraconazole-digoxin interaction. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Hollis RJ, et al. In vitro susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates to the new triazole antifungal agents BMS-207147, Sch 56592, and voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:3242–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Gibbs DL, et al. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance study, 1997 to 2005: an 8.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1735–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Hollis RJ, Jones RN. Antifungal activities of posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole compared to those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 239 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi: report from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2000. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1032–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Rex JH, Pappas PG, et al. Antifungal ­susceptibility survey of 2,000 bloodstream Candida isolates in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3149–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Marco F, Pfaller MA, Messer S, Jones RN. In vitro activities of voriconazole (UK-109, 496) and four other antifungal agents against 394 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:161–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cuenca-Estrella M, Ruiz-Diez B, Martinez-Suarez JV, Monzon A, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. Comparative in-vitro activity of voriconazole (UK-109, 496) and six other antifungal agents against clinical isolates of Scedosporium prolificans and Scedosporium apiospermum. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;43:149–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ramos G, Cuenca-Estrella M, Monzon A, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. In-vitro comparative activity of UR-9825, itraconazole and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida spp. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;44:283–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Gomez-Lopez A, Garcia-Effron G, Mellado E, Monzon A, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Cuenca-Estrella M. In vitro activities of three licensed antifungal agents against spanish clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3085–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cuenca-Estrella M, Rodriguez D, Almirante B, et al. In vitro susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of Candida species to six antifungal agents: results from a population-based active surveillance programme, Barcelona, Spain, 2002–2003. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:194–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    De Bedout C, Ordonez N, Gomez BL, et al. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii. Rev Iberoam Micol. 1999;16:36–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Espinel-Ingroff A, Johnson E, Hockey H, Troke P. Activities of voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B in vitro against 590 moulds from 323 patients in the voriconazole Phase III clinical studies. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61:616–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Sun QN, Fothergill AW, McCarthy DI, Rinaldi MG, Graybill JR. In vitro activities of posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and fluconazole against 37 clinical isolates of zygomycetes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1581–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    McGinnis MR, Nordoff N, Li RK, Pasarell L, Warnock DW. Sporothrix schenckii sensitivity to voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. Med Mycol. 2001;39:369–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Alvarado-Ramirez E, Torres-Rodriguez JM. In vitro susceptibility of Sporothrix schenckii to six antifungal agents determined using three different methods. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2420–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dannaoui E, Meletiadis J, Mouton JW, Meis JF, Verweij PE. In vitro susceptibilities of zygomycetes to conventional and new antifungals. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;51:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Paphitou NI, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Paetznick VL, Rodriguez JR, Chen E, Rex JH. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of Trichosporon species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1144–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sabatelli F, Patel R, Mann PA, et al. In vitro activities of posaconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against a large collection of clinically important molds and yeasts. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:2009–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Almyroudis NG, Sutton DA, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG, Kusne S. In vitro susceptibilities of 217 clinical isolates of zygomycetes to conventional and new antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2587–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Meletiadis J, Meis JF, Mouton JW, Rodriquez-Tudela JL, Donnelly JP, Verweij PE. In vitro activities of new and conventional antifungal agents against clinical Scedosporium isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:62–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gonzalez GM, Fothergill AW, Sutton DA, Rinaldi MG, Loebenberg D. In vitro activities of new and established triazoles against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi. Med Mycol. 2005;43:281–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Li RK, Ciblak MA, Nordoff N, Pasarell L, Warnock DW, McGinnis MR. In vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:1734–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Hollis RJ, Jones RN, Diekema DJ. In vitro activities of ravuconazole and voriconazole compared with those of four approved systemic antifungal agents against 6, 970 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1723–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Espinel-Ingroff A. In vitro fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against opportunistic moniliaceous and dematiaceous fungi. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:954–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Gonzalez GM, Sutton DA, Thompson E, Tijerina R, Rinaldi MG. In vitro activities of approved and investigational antifungal agents against 44 clinical isolates of basidiomycetous fungi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:633–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Espinel-Ingroff A. In vitro activity of the new triazole voriconazole (UK-109, 496) against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and common and emerging yeast pathogens. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:198–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Fernandez-Torres B, Vazquez-Veiga H, Llovo X, Pereiro Jr M, Guarro J. In vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, clotrimazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine of 100 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum. Chemotherapy. 2000;46:390–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Carrillo AJ, Guarro J. In vitro activities of four novel triazoles against Scedosporium spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:2151–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Boyken L, et al. In vitro activities of voriconazole, posaconazole, and fluconazole against 4,169 clinical isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans collected during 2001 and 2002 in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;48:201–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Panackal AA, Gribskov JL, Staab JF, Kirby KA, Rinaldi M, Marr KA. Clinical significance of azole antifungal drug cross-resistance in Candida glabrata. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1740–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Messer SA, Hollis RJ, Jones RN. In vitro activities of caspofungin compared with those of fluconazole and itraconazole against 3,959 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 157 fluconazole-resistant isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1068–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Boyken L, et al. Use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to voriconazole among 13, 338 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Tested by clinical and laboratory standards institute-recommended broth microdilution methods. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:70–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Pfaller MA, Zhang J, Messer SA, et al. In vitro activities of voriconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole against 566 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from the United States and Africa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:169–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Boyken L, et al. Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004). J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2163–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Gomez-Lopez A, Zaragoza O, Dos Anjos Martins M, Melhem MC, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Cuenca-Estrella M. In vitro susceptibility of Cryptococcus gattii clinical isolates. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:727–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Te Dorsthorst DT, Verweij PE, Meis JF, Punt NC, Mouton JW. In vitro interactions between amphotericin B, itraconazole, and flucytosine against 21 clinical Aspergillus isolates determined by two drug interaction models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:2007–13.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Espinel-Ingroff A. Comparison of in vitro activities of the new triazole SCH56592 and the echinocandins MK-0991 (L-743, 872) and LY303366 against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and yeasts. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:2950–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Diekema DJ, Messer SA, Hollis RJ, Jones RN, Pfaller MA. Activities of caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against 448 recent clinical isolates of filamentous fungi. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3623–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Cacciapuoti A, Loebenberg D, Corcoran E, et al. In vitro and in vivo activities of SCH 56592 (posaconazole), a new triazole antifungal agent, against Aspergillus and Candida. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:2017–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Cuenca-Estrella M, Monzon A, Mellado E, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. Antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical Fusarium spp. isolates identified by molecular methods. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;61:805–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Anaissie EJ, Karyotakis NC, Hachem R, Dignani MC, Rex JH, Paetznick V. Correlation between in vitro and in vivo activity of antifungal agents against Candida species. J Infect Dis. 1994;170:384–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Graybill JR, Montalbo E, Kirkpatrick WR, Luther MF, Revankar SG, Patterson TF. Fluconazole versus Candida albicans: a complex relationship. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:2938–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    NCCLS. Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. In: Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing Document M27-A2. 2nd ed. Wayne: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2002.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Andes D, van Ogtrop M. Characterization and quantitation of the pharmacodynamics of fluconazole in a neutropenic murine disseminated candidiasis infection model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:2116–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Andes D. In vivo pharmacodynamics of antifungal drugs in treatment of candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1179–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Andes D, Marchillo K, Stamstad T, Conklin R. In vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new triazole, voriconazole, in a murine candidiasis model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3165–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Baddley JW, Patel M, Bhavnani SM, Moser SA, Andes DR. Association of fluconazole pharmacodynamics with mortality in patients with candidemia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:3022–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Rex JH, Pfaller MA, Barry AL, Nelson PW, Webb CD. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates from a randomized, multicenter trial of fluconazole versus amphotericin B as treatment of nonneutropenic patients with candidemia. NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the Candidemia Study Group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:40–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Rex JH, et al. Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against voriconazole: analysis and proposal for interpretive breakpoints. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:819–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    White TC, Marr KA, Bowden RA. Clinical, cellular, and molecular factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11:382–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Wingard JR. Infections due to resistant Candida species in patients with cancer who are receiving chemotherapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19 Suppl 1:S49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wingard JR, Merz WG, Rinaldi MG, Johnson TR, Karp JE, Saral R. Increase in Candida krusei infection among patients with bone marrow transplantation and neutropenia treated prophylactically with fluconazole. N Engl J Med. 1991;325:1274–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Wingard JR, Merz WG, Rinaldi MG, Miller CB, Karp JE, Saral R. Association of Torulopsis glabrata infections with fluconazole prophylaxis in neutropenic bone marrow transplant patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993;37:1847–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Baily GG, Perry FM, Denning DW, Mandal BK. Fluconazole-resistant candidosis in an HIV cohort. AIDS (London, England). 1994;8:787–92.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Redding S, Smith J, Farinacci G, et al. Resistance of Candida albicans to fluconazole during treatment of oropharyngeal ­candidiasis in a patient with AIDS: documentation by in vitro ­susceptibility testing and DNA subtype analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18:240–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ruhnke M, Eigler A, Tennagen I, Geiseler B, Engelmann E, Trautmann M. Emergence of fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida albicans in patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:2092–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Maenza JR, Merz WG, Romagnoli MJ, Keruly JC, Moore RD, Gallant JE. Infection due to fluconazole-resistant Candida in patients with AIDS: prevalence and microbiology. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Maenza JR, Keruly JC, Moore RD, Chaisson RE, Merz WG, Gallant JE. Risk factors for fluconazole-resistant candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 1996;173:219–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Revankar SG, Kirkpatrick WR, McAtee RK, et al. Detection and significance of fluconazole resistance in oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 1996;174:821–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Martins MD, Lozano-Chiu M, Rex JH. Point prevalence of oropharyngeal carriage of fluconazole-resistant Candida in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:843–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    He X, Tiballi RN, Zarins LT, Bradley SF, Sangeorzan JA, Kauffman CA. Azole resistance in oropharyngeal Candida ­albicans strains isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994;38:2495–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Abi-Said D, Anaissie E, Uzun O, Raad I, Pinzcowski H, Vartivarian S. The epidemiology of hematogenous candidiasis caused by different Candida species. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24:1122–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Sanglard D, Kuchler K, Ischer F, Pagani JL, Monod M, Bille J. Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39:2378–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    White TC, Holleman S, Dy F, Mirels LF, Stevens DA. Resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1704–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Sanglard D, Ischer F, Koymans L, Bille J. Amino acid substitutions in the cytochrome P-450 lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51A1) from azole-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolates contribute to resistance to azole antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:241–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Sanglard D, Ischer F, Monod M, Bille J. Cloning of Candida albicans genes conferring resistance to azole antifungal agents: characterization of CDR2, a new multidrug ABC transporter gene. Microbiology (Reading, England). 1997;143(Pt 2):405–16.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Sanglard D, Ischer F, Monod M, Bille J. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans multidrug transporter mutants to various antifungal agents and other metabolic inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996;40:2300–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Sanglard D, Ischer F, Bille J. Role of ATP-binding-cassette transporter genes in high-frequency acquisition of resistance to azole antifungals in Candida glabrata. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:1174–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Sanglard D. Clinical relevance of mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in yeasts. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clín. 2002;20:462–9. quiz 70, 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Sanglard D, Ischer F, Parkinson T, Falconer D, Bille J. Candida albicans mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway and resistance to several antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2404–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Chau AS, Gurnani M, Hawkinson R, Laverdiere M, Cacciapuoti A, McNicholas PM. Inactivation of sterol Delta5, 6-desaturase attenuates virulence in Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:3646–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Marr KA, Lyons CN, Rustad TR, Bowden RA, White TC. Rapid, transient fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans is associated with increased mRNA levels of CDR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:2584–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Chen J, Li H, Li R, Bu D, Wan Z. Mutations in the cyp51A gene and susceptibility to itraconazole in Aspergillus fumigatus serially isolated from a patient with lung aspergilloma. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:31–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Howard SJ, Webster I, Moore CB, et al. Multi-azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006;28:450–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Mellado E, Garcia-Effron G, Alcazar-Fuoli L, Cuenca-Estrella M, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. Substitutions at methionine 220 in the 14alpha-sterol demethylase (Cyp51A) of Aspergillus fumigatus are responsible for resistance in vitro to azole antifungal drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:2747–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Diaz-Guerra TM, Mellado E, Cuenca-Estrella M, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. A point mutation in the 14alpha-sterol demethylase gene cyp51A contributes to itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1120–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Nascimento AM, Goldman GH, Park S, et al. Multiple resistance mechanisms among Aspergillus fumigatus mutants with high-level resistance to itraconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:1719–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Slaven JW, Anderson MJ, Sanglard D, et al. Increased expression of a novel Aspergillus fumigatus ABC transporter gene, atrF, in the presence of itraconazole in an itraconazole resistant clinical isolate. Fungal Genet Biol. 2002;36:199–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Snelders E, van der Lee HA, Kuijpers J, et al. Emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and spread of a single resistance mechanism. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Snelders E, Huis In ‘t Veld RA, Rijs AJ, Kema GH, Melchers WJ, Verweij PE. Possible environmental origin of resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus to medical triazoles. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4053–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Van Cauteren H, Lampo A, Vandenberghe J, et al. Toxicological profile and safety evaluation of antifungal azole derivatives. Mycoses. 1989;32 Suppl 1:60–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Tucker RM, Haq Y, Denning DW, Stevens DA. Adverse events associated with itraconazole in 189 patients on chronic therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990;26:561–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Eiden C, Peyriere H, Cociglio M, et al. Adverse effects of voriconazole: analysis of the French Pharmacovigilance Database. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:755–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Gearhart MO. Worsening of liver function with fluconazole and review of azole antifungal hepatotoxicity. Ann Pharmacother. 1994;28:1177–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Galgiani JN, Catanzaro A, Cloud GA, et al. Comparison of oral fluconazole and itraconazole for progressive, nonmeningeal coccidioidomycosis. A randomized, double-blind trial. Mycoses Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:676–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Scherpbier HJ, Hilhorst MI, Kuijpers TW. Liver failure in a child receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:828–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Hoffman HL, Rathbun RC. Review of the safety and efficacy of voriconazole. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002;11:409–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Tran HT. Torsades de pointes induced by nonantiarrhythmic drugs. Conn Med. 1994;58:291–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Pursley TJ, Blomquist IK, Abraham J, Andersen HF, Bartley JA. Fluconazole-induced congenital anomalies in three infants. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:336–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Weinroth SE, Tuazon CU. Alopecia associated with fluconazole treatment. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Pappas PG, Kauffman CA, Perfect J, et al. Alopecia associated with fluconazole therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:354–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ahmad SR, Singer SJ, Leissa BG. Congestive heart failure ­associated with itraconazole. Lancet. 2001;357:1766–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Stevens DA, Diaz M, Negroni R, et al. Safety evaluation of chronic fluconazole therapy. Fluconazole Pan-American Study Group. Chemotherapy. 1997;43:371–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Koletar SL, Russell JA, Fass RJ, Plouffe JF. Comparison of oral fluconazole and clotrimazole troches as treatment for oral candidiasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34:2267–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Pons V, Greenspan D, Debruin M. Therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized, prospective multicenter study of oral fluconazole versus clotrimazole troches. The Multicenter Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1993;6:1311–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Barbaro G, Barbarini G, Di Lorenzo G. Fluconazole vs itraconazole-flucytosine association in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients. A double-blind, multicenter placebo-controlled study. The Candida Esophagitis Multicenter Italian Study (CEMIS) Group. Chest. 1996;110:1507–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Skiest DJ, Vazquez JA, Anstead GM, et al. Posaconazole for the treatment of azole-refractory oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in subjects with HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:607–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Phillips P, Zemcov J, Mahmood W, Montaner JS, Craib K, Clarke AM. Itraconazole cyclodextrin solution for fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS: correlation of clinical response with in vitro susceptibility. AIDS (London, England). 1996;10:1369–76.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Graybill JR, Vazquez J, Darouiche RO, et al. Randomized trial of itraconazole oral solution for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients. Am J Med. 1998;104:33–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Wilcox CM, Darouiche RO, Laine L, Moskovitz BL, Mallegol I, Wu J. A randomized, double-blind comparison of itraconazole oral solution and fluconazole tablets in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. J Infect Dis. 1997;176:227–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Phillips P, De Beule K, Frechette G, et al. A double-blind comparison of itraconazole oral solution and fluconazole capsules for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:1368–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Saag MS, Fessel WJ, Kauffman CA, et al. Treatment of fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis with itraconazole oral solution in HIV-positive patients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999;15:1413–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Cartledge JD, Midgely J, Gazzard BG. Itraconazole solution: higher serum drug concentrations and better clinical response rates than the capsule formulation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with candidosis. J Clin Pathol. 1997;50:477–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Cartledge JD, Midgley J, Youle M, Gazzard BG. Itraconazole cyclodextrin solution–effective treatment for HIV-related candidosis unresponsive to other azole therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994;33:1071–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Hegener P, Troke PF, Fatkenheuer G, Diehl V, Ruhnke M. Treatment of fluconazole-resistant candidiasis with voriconazole in patients with AIDS. AIDS (London, England). 1998;12:2227–8.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Barbaro G, Barbarini G, Calderon W, Grisorio B, Alcini P, Di Lorenzo G. Fluconazole versus itraconazole for Candida esophagitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gastroenterology. 1996;111:1169–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Laine L, Dretler RH, Conteas CN, et al. Fluconazole compared with ketoconazole for the treatment of Candida esophagitis in AIDS. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:655–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Vazquez JA, Skiest DJ, Tissot-Dupont H, Lennox JL, Boparai N, Isaacs R. Safety and efficacy of posaconazole in the long-term treatment of azole-refractory oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients with HIV infection. HIV Clin Trials. 2007;8:86–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Ally R, Schurmann D, Kreisel W, et al. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial of voriconazole and fluconazole in the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1447–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Smith DE, Midgley J, Allan M, Connolly GM, Gazzard BG. Itraconazole versus ketaconazole in the treatment of oral and oesophageal candidosis in patients infected with HIV. AIDS (London, England). 1991;5:1367–71.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Sobel JD, Brooker D, Stein GE, et al. Single oral dose fluconazole compared with conventional clotrimazole topical therapy of Candida vaginitis. Fluconazole Vaginitis Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:1263–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Brammer KW, Feczko JM. Single-dose oral fluconazole in the treatment of vaginal candidosis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988;544:561–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Stein GE, Mummaw N. Placebo-controlled trial of itraconazole for treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993;37:89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Pitsouni E, Iavazzo C, Falagas ME. Itraconazole vs fluconazole for the treatment of uncomplicated acute vaginal and vulvovaginal candidiasis in nonpregnant women: a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:153–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sobel JD, Kapernick PS, Zervos M, et al. Treatment of complicated Candida vaginitis: comparison of single and sequential doses of fluconazole. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185:363–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Sobel JD, Wiesenfeld HC, Martens M, et al. Maintenance fluconazole therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:876–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Kauffman CA, Vazquez JA, Sobel JD, et al. Prospective multicenter surveillance study of funguria in hospitalized patients. The National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:14–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Sobel JD, Kauffman CA, McKinsey D, et al. Candiduria: a randomized, double-blind study of treatment with fluconazole and placebo. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Jacobs LG, Skidmore EA, Freeman K, Lipschultz D, Fox N. Oral fluconazole compared with bladder irrigation with amphotericin B for treatment of fungal urinary tract infections in elderly patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:30–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Fan-Havard P, O’Donovan C, Smith SM, Oh J, Bamberger M, Eng RH. Oral fluconazole versus amphotericin B bladder irrigation for treatment of candidal funguria. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:960–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    De Doncker P, Van Lint J, Dockx P, Roseeuw D. Pulse therapy with one-week itraconazole monthly for three or four months in the treatment of onychomycosis. Cutis. 1995;56:180–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Walsoe I, Stangerup M, Svejgaard E. Itraconazole in onychomycosis. Open and double-blind studies. Acta Derm Venereol. 1990;70:137–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Arca E, Tastan HB, Akar A, Kurumlu Z, Gur AR. An open, randomized, comparative study of oral fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine therapy in onychomycosis. J Dermatol Treat. 2002;13:3–9.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Scher RK, Breneman D, Rich P, et al. Once-weekly fluconazole (150, 300, or 450 mg) in the treatment of distal subungual onychomycosis of the toenail. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:S77–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. Candidemia Study Group and the National Institute. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1325–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Phillips P, Shafran S, Garber G, et al. Multicenter randomized trial of fluconazole versus amphotericin B for treatment of candidemia in non-neutropenic patients. Canadian Candidemia Study Group. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1997;16:337–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Rex JH, Pappas PG, Karchmer AW, et al. A randomized and blinded multicenter trial of high-dose fluconazole plus placebo versus fluconazole plus amphotericin B as therapy for candidemia and its consequences in nonneutropenic subjects. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1221–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Nguyen MH, Peacock Jr JE, Tanner DC, et al. Therapeutic approaches in patients with candidemia. Evaluation in a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:2429–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Anaissie EJ, Vartivarian SE, Abi-Said D, et al. Fluconazole versus amphotericin B in the treatment of hematogenous candidiasis: a matched cohort study. Am J Med. 1996;101:170–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Rex JH, Bennett JE, Sugar AM, et al. Intravascular catheter exchange and duration of candidemia. NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the Candidemia Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:994–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Reboli AC, Rotstein C, Pappas PG, et al. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole for invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2472–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Kullberg BJ, Sobel JD, Ruhnke M, et al. Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2005;366:1435–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    de Gans J, Portegies P, Tiessens G, et al. Itraconazole compared with amphotericin B plus flucytosine in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis. AIDS (London, England). 1992;6:185–90.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Perfect JR, Dismukes WE, Dromer F, et al. Clinical Practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:291–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    van der Horst CM, Saag MS, Cloud GA, et al. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group and AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Saag MS, Powderly WG, Cloud GA, et al. Comparison of amphotericin B with fluconazole in the treatment of acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. The NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:83–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Pappas PG, Chetchotisakd P, Larsen RA, et al. A phase II randomized trial of amphotericin B alone or combined with fluconazole in the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1775–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Perfect JR, Marr KA, Walsh TJ, et al. Voriconazole treatment for less-common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1122–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Bozzette SA, Larsen RA, Chiu J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of maintenance therapy with fluconazole after treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. California Collaborative Treatment Group. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:580–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Powderly WG, Saag MS, Cloud GA, et al. A controlled trial of fluconazole or amphotericin B to prevent relapse of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group and Mycoses Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1992;326:793–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Saag MS, Cloud GA, Graybill JR, et al. A comparison of itraconazole versus fluconazole as maintenance therapy for AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:291–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KK, et al. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR 2009;58:1–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Yamaguchi H, Ikemoto H, Watanabe K, Ito A, Hara K, Kohno S. Fluconazole monotherapy for cryptococcosis in non-AIDS patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996;15:787–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Pappas PG, Perfect JR, Cloud GA, et al. Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients in the era of effective azole therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:690–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Dismukes WE, Bradsher Jr RW, Cloud GC, et al. Itraconazole therapy for blastomycosis and histoplasmosis. NIAID Mycoses Study Group. Am J Med. 1992;93:489–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Chapman SW, Bradsher Jr RW, Campbell Jr GD, Pappas PG, Kauffman CA. Practice guidelines for the management of patients with blastomycosis. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:679–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Pappas PG, Bradsher RW, Kauffman CA, et al. Treatment of blastomycosis with higher doses of fluconazole. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;25:200–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Pappas PG, Bradsher RW, Chapman SW, et al. Treatment of blastomycosis with fluconazole: a pilot study. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20:267–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Freifeld A, Proia L, Andes D, et al. Voriconazole use for endemic fungal infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1648–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Chapman SW, Dismukes WE, Proia LA, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of blastomycosis: 2008 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1801–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Graybill JR, Stevens DA, Galgiani JN, Dismukes WE, Cloud GA. Itraconazole treatment of coccidioidomycosis. NAIAD Mycoses Study Group. Am J Med. 1990;89:282–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Tucker RM, Denning DW, Dupont B, Stevens DA. Itraconazole therapy for chronic coccidioidal meningitis. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:108–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Diaz M, Negroni R, Montero-Gei F, et al. A Pan-American 5-year study of fluconazole therapy for deep mycoses in the immunocompetent host. Pan-American Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14 Suppl 1:S68–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Galgiani JN, Catanzaro A, Cloud GA, et al. Fluconazole therapy for coccidioidal meningitis. The NIAID-Mycoses Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:28–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Catanzaro A, Galgiani JN, Levine BE, et al. Fluconazole in the treatment of chronic pulmonary and nonmeningeal disseminated coccidioidomycosis. NIAID Mycoses Study Group. Am J Med. 1995;98:249–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    DeFelice R, Galgiani JN, Campbell SC, et al. Ketoconazole treatment of nonprimary coccidioidomycosis. Evaluation of 60 patients during three years of study. Am J Med. 1982;72:681–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Galgiani JN, Stevens DA, Graybill JR, Dismukes WE, Cloud GA. Ketoconazole therapy of progressive coccidioidomycosis. Comparison of 400- and 800-mg doses and observations at higher doses. Am J Med. 1988;84:603–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Graybill JR, Stevens DA, Galgiani JN, et al. Ketoconazole treatment of coccidioidal meningitis. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1988;544:488–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Stevens DA, Rendon A, Gaona-Flores V, et al. Posaconazole ­therapy for chronic refractory coccidioidomycosis. Chest. 2007;132:952–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Catanzaro A, Cloud GA, Stevens DA, et al. Safety, tolerance, and efficacy of posaconazole therapy in patients with nonmeningeal disseminated or chronic pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:562–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Galgiani JN, Ampel NM, Blair JE, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1217–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Dewsnup DH, Galgiani JN, Graybill JR, et al. Is it ever safe to stop azole therapy for Coccidioides immitis meningitis? Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:305–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Galgiani JN, Ampel NM, Blair JE, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1217–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Negroni R, Robles AM, Arechavala A, Tuculet MA, Galimberti R. Ketoconazole in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1980;2:643–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Dismukes WE, Stamm AM, Graybill JR, et al. Treatment of systemic mycoses with ketoconazole: emphasis on toxicity and clinical response in 52 patients. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases collaborative antifungal study. Ann Intern Med. 1983;98:13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Negroni R, Taborda A, Robies AM, Archevala A. Itraconazole in the treatment of histoplasmosis associated with AIDS. Mycoses. 1992;35:281–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Negroni R, Robles AM, Arechavala A, Taborda A. Itraconazole in human histoplasmosis. Mycoses. 1989;32:123–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Negroni R, Palmieri O, Koren F, Tiraboschi IN, Galimberti RL. Oral treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis with itraconazole in humans. Rev Infect Dis. 1987;9 Suppl 1:S47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Wheat J, Hafner R, Korzun AH, et al. Itraconazole treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS Clinical Trial Group. Am J Med. 1995;98:336–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Wheat J, Hafner R, Wulfsohn M, et al. Prevention of relapse of histoplasmosis with itraconazole in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 1993;118:610–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Wheat J, MaWhinney S, Hafner R, et al. Treatment of histoplasmosis with fluconazole in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Clinical Trials Group and Mycoses Study Group. Am J Med. 1997;103:223–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    McKinsey DS, Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, et al. Fluconazole therapy for histoplasmosis. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;23:996–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Restrepo A, Tobon A, Clark B, et al. Salvage treatment of histoplasmosis with posaconazole. J Infect. 2007;54:319–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Wheat LJ, Freifeld AG, Kleiman MB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with histoplasmosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:807–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Restrepo A, Gomez I, Cano LE, et al. Treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis with ketoconazole: a three-year experience. Am J Med. 1983;74:48–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Naranjo MS, Trujillo M, Munera MI, Restrepo P, Gomez I, Restrepo A. Treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis with itraconazole. J Med Vet Mycol. 1990;28:67–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Queiroz-Telles F, Goldani LZ, Schlamm HT, Goodrich JM, Espinel-Ingroff A, Shikanai-Yasuda MA. An open-label comparative pilot study of oral voriconazole and itraconazole for long-term treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1462–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Restrepo A. Treatment of tropical mycoses. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:S91–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Kauffman CA, Hajjeh R, Chapman SW. Practice guidelines for the management of patients with sporotrichosis. For the Mycoses Study Group. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:684–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Winn RE, Anderson J, Piper J, Aronson NE, Pluss J. Systemic sporotrichosis treated with itraconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;17:210–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Restrepo A, Robledo J, Gomez I, Tabares AM, Gutierrez R. Itraconazole therapy in lymphangitic and cutaneous sporotrichosis. Arch Dermatol. 1986;122:413–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Sharkey-Mathis PK, Kauffman CA, Graybill JR, et al. Treatment of sporotrichosis with itraconazole. NIAID Mycoses Study Group. Am J Med. 1993;95:279–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Calhoun DL, Waskin H, White MP, et al. Treatment of systemic sporotrichosis with ketoconazole. Rev Infect Dis. 1991;13:47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Kauffman CA, Pappas PG, McKinsey DS, et al. Treatment of lymphocutaneous and visceral sporotrichosis with fluconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22:46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Kauffman CA, Bustamante B, Chapman SW, Pappas PG. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of sporotrichosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1255–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Sirisanthana T, Supparatpinyo K, Perriens J, Nelson KE. Amphotericin B and itraconazole for treatment of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;26:1107–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Supparatpinyo K, Perriens J, Nelson KE, Sirisanthana T. A controlled trial of itraconazole to prevent relapse of Penicillium marneffei infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1739–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Chariyalertsak S, Supparatpinyo K, Sirisanthana T, Nelson KE. A controlled trial of itraconazole as primary prophylaxis for systemic fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection in Thailand. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:277–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Supparatpinyo K, Schlamm HT. Voriconazole as therapy for systemic Penicillium marneffei infections in AIDS patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:350–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Walsh TJ, Anaissie EJ, Denning DW, et al. Treatment of aspergillosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:327–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Dupont B. Itraconazole therapy in aspergillosis: study in 49 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:607–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Denning DW, Lee JY, Hostetler JS, et al. NIAID Mycoses Study Group multicenter trial of oral itraconazole therapy for invasive Aspergillosis. Am J Med. 1994;97:135–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Stevens DA, Lee JY. Analysis of compassionate use itraconazole therapy for invasive aspergillosis by the NIAID Mycoses Study Group criteria. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:1857–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Herbrecht R, Denning DW, Patterson TF, et al. Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:408–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Denning DW, Ribaud P, Milpied N, et al. Efficacy and safety of voriconazole in the treatment of acute invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:563–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Raad II, Hanna HA, Boktour M, et al. Novel antifungal agents as salvage therapy for invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies: posaconazole compared with high-dose lipid formulations of amphotericin B alone or in combination with caspofungin. Leukemia. 2008;22:496–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Kirkpatrick WR, Perea S, Coco BJ, Patterson TF. Efficacy of caspofungin alone and in combination with voriconazole in a Guinea pig model of invasive aspergillosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:2564–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Perea S, Gonzalez G, Fothergill AW, Kirkpatrick WR, Rinaldi MG, Patterson TF. In vitro interaction of caspofungin acetate with voriconazole against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3039–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Marr KA, Boeckh M, Carter RA, Kim HW, Corey L. Combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:797–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Sharkey PK, Graybill JR, Rinaldi MG, et al. Itraconazole treatment of phaeohyphomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:577–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Whittle DI, Kominos S. Use of itraconazole for treating subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:1068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Goldberg SL, Geha DJ, Marshall WF, Inwards DJ, Hoagland HC. Successful treatment of simultaneous pulmonary Pseudallescheria boydii and Aspergillus terreus infection with oral itraconazole. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;16:803–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Raad II, Hachem RY, Herbrecht R, et al. Posaconazole as salvage treatment for invasive fusariosis in patients with underlying hematologic malignancy and other conditions. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1398–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Greenberg RN, Mullane K, van Burik JA, et al. Posaconazole as salvage therapy for zygomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:126–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    van Burik JA, Hare RS, Solomon HF, Corrado ML, Kontoyiannis DP. Posaconazole is effective as salvage therapy in zygomycosis: a retrospective summary of 91 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:e61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Boogaerts M, Winston DJ, Bow EJ, et al. Intravenous and oral itraconazole versus intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate as empirical antifungal therapy for persistent fever in neutropenic patients with cancer who are receiving broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:412–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Walsh TJ, Pappas P, Winston DJ, et al. Voriconazole compared with liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with neutropenia and persistent fever. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:225–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Slavin MA, Osborne B, Adams R, et al. Efficacy and safety of fluconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after marrow transplantation – a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Infect Dis. 1995;171:1545–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Rozenberg-Arska M, Dekker AW, Branger J, Verhoef J. A randomized study to compare oral fluconazole to amphotericin B in the prevention of fungal infections in patients with acute leukaemia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1991;27:369–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Menichetti F, Del Favero A, Martino P, et al. Preventing fungal infection in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia: fluconazole compared with oral amphotericin B. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:913–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Bodey GP, Anaissie EJ, Elting LS, Estey E, O’Brien S, Kantarjian H. Antifungal prophylaxis during remission induction therapy for acute leukemia fluconazole versus intravenous amphotericin B. Cancer. 1994;73:2099–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Nucci M, Biasoli I, Akiti T, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of itraconazole capsules as antifungal prophylaxis for neutropenic patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:300–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Menichetti F, Del Favero A, Martino P, et al. Itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis for fungal infections in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial. GIMEMA Infection Program. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell’ Adulto. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:250–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Glasmacher A, Molitor E, Hahn C, et al. Antifungal prophylaxis with itraconazole in neutropenic patients with acute leukaemia. Leukemia. 1998;12:1338–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Vardakas KZ, Michalopoulos A, Falagas ME. Fluconazole versus itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies: a meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials. Br J Haematol. 2005;131:22–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Shorr AF, Chung K, Jackson WL, Waterman PE, Kollef MH. Fluconazole prophylaxis in critically ill surgical patients: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:1928–35. quiz 36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Cruciani M, de Lalla F, Mengoli C. Prophylaxis of Candida infections in adult trauma and surgical intensive care patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intens Care Med. 2005;31:1479–87.Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Schuster MG, Edwards Jr JE, Sobel JD, et al. Empirical fluconazole versus placebo for intensive care unit patients: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Eggimann P, Francioli P, Bille J, et al. Fluconazole prophylaxis prevents intra-abdominal candidiasis in high-risk surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 1999;27:1066–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Manzoni P, Stolfi I, Pugni L, et al. A multicenter, randomized trial of prophylactic fluconazole in preterm neonates. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2483–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Winston DJ, Busuttil RW. Randomized controlled trial of oral itraconazole solution versus intravenous/oral fluconazole for prevention of fungal infections in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2002;74:688–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Hay RJ, Clayton YM, Moore MK, Midgely G. An evaluation of itraconazole in the management of onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 1988;119:359–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Willemsen M, De Doncker P, Willems J, et al. Posttreatment itraconazole levels in the nail. New implications for treatment in onychomycosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26:731–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Haneke E, Abeck D, Ring J. Safety and efficacy of intermittent therapy with itraconazole in finger- and toenail onychomycosis: a multicentre trial. Mycoses. 1998;41:521–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Havu V, Brandt H, Heikkila H, et al. A double-blind, randomized study comparing itraconazole pulse therapy with continuous dosing for the treatment of toe-nail onychomycosis. Br J Dermatol. 1997;136:230–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Brautigam M. Terbinafine versus itraconazole: a controlled clinical comparison in onychomycosis of the toenails. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:S53–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    De Backer M, De Vroey C, Lesaffre E, Scheys I, De Keyser P. Twelve weeks of continuous oral therapy for toenail onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes: a double-blind comparative trial of terbinafine 250 mg/day versus itraconazole 200 mg/day. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:S57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Montero-Gei F, Perera A. Therapy with fluconazole for tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14 Suppl 1:S77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Katsambas A, Antoniou C, Frangouli E, et al. Itraconazole in the treatment of tinea corporis and tinea cruris. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1993;18:322–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Degreef H, Marien K, De Veylder H, Duprez K, Borghys A, Verhoeve L. Itraconazole in the treatment of dermatophytoses: a comparison of two daily dosages. Rev Infect Dis. 1987;9 Suppl 1:S104–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Legendre R, Esola-Macre J. Itraconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:559–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    De Keyser P, De Backer M, Massart DL, Westelinck KJ. Two-week oral treatment of tinea pedis, comparing terbinafine (250 mg/day) with itraconazole (100 mg/day): a double-blind, multicentre study. Br J Dermatol. 1994;130 Suppl 43:22–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, and Medical Microbiology and ImmunologySection of Infectious DiseasesMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations