Advertisement

Epidemiology of Systemic Fungal Diseases: An Overview

  • Benjamin J. Park
  • Tom M. Chiller
  • Mary E. Brandt
  • David W. Warnock
Chapter

Abstract

The epidemiology of systemic fungal diseases has evolved rapidly over the past 2 decades. Advances in medical treatment have led to improved survival in the general population, but these advances have also led to larger numbers of individuals (including those who have indwelling catheters, who are in intensive care, who have received various immunosuppressive therapies, and who are undergoing organ or stem cell transplantation) being at risk for fungal infection. The global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has led to unprecedented numbers of opportunistic fungal infections, including candidiasis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and penicilliosis. While the numbers have dropped dramatically in developed nations [1–4], many countries in sub-Saharan Africa [5–7] and parts of Asia [8–10] remain highly affected by these and other fungal diseases. Migration patterns, land use, and climate factors are thought to have contributed to a marked increase in the incidence of coccidioidomycosis [11] in the endemic areas of the southwestern USA and in the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii infections [12, 13] in British Columbia, Canada, and the Pacific northwestern USA.

Keywords

Invasive Fungal Infection Cryptococcal Meningitis Public Health Authority Sentinel Surveillance Cryptococcal Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Dromer F, Mathoulin-Pelissier S, Fontanet A, et al. Epidemiology of HIV-associated cryptococcosis in France (1985–2001): comparison of the pre- and post-HAART eras. AIDS 2004;18:555-62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaplan JE, Hanson D, Dworkin MS, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated opportunistic infections in the United States in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30(Suppl 1):S5-14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mirza SA, Phelan M, Rimland D, et al. The changing epidemiology of cryptococcosis: an update from population-based active surveillance in 2 large metropolitan areas, 1992-2000. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:789-94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    van Elden LJ, Walenkamp AM, Lipovsky MM, et al. Declining number of patients with cryptococcosis in the Netherlands in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2000;14: 2787-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    French N, Gray K, Watera C, et al. Cryptococcal infection in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. AIDS 2002;16:1031-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mbanya DN, Zebaze R, Minkoulou EM, Binam F, Koulla S, Obounou A. Clinical and epidemiologic trends in HIV/AIDS patients in a hospital setting of Yaounde, Cameroon: a 6-year perspective. Int J Infect Dis 2002;6:134-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCarthy KM, Morgan J, Wannemuehler KA, et al. Population-based surveillance for cryptococcosis in an antiretroviral-naive South African province with a high HIV seroprevalence. AIDS 2006;20:2199-206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klotz SA, Nguyen HC, Van Pham T, Nguyen LT, Ngo DT, Vu SN. Clinical features of HIV/AIDS patients presenting to an inner city clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Int J STD AIDS 2007;18:482-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kong BN, Harwell JI, Suos P, et al. Opportunistic infections and HIV clinical disease stage among patients presenting for care in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007;38:62-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumarasamy N, Solomon S, Flanigan TP, Hemalatha R, Thyagarajan SP, Mayer KH. Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus disease in southern India. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:79-85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Park BJ, Sigel K, Vaz V, et al. An epidemic of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona associated with climatic changes, 1998-2001. J Infect Dis 2005;191:1981-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chambers C, MacDougall L, Li M, Galanis E. Tourism and specific risk areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14:1781-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    MacDougall L, Kidd SE, Galanis E, et al. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and detection in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13(1):42-50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. MMWR – Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1988;37(Suppl 5):1-18.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    German RR, Lee LM, Horan JM, et al. Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems: recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group. MMWR Recomm Rep 2001;50:1-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Almirante B, Rodriguez D, Park BJ, et al. Epidemiology and predictors of mortality in cases of Candida bloodstream infection: results from population-based surveillance, Barcelona, Spain, from 2002 to 2003. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:1829-35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Colombo AL, Nucci M, Park BJ, et al. Epidemiology of ­candidemia in Brazil: a nationwide sentinel surveillance of ­candidemia in eleven medical centers. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:2816-23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hajjeh RA, Brandt ME, Pinner RW. Emergence of cryptococcal disease: epidemiologic perspectives 100 years after its discovery. Epidemiol Rev 1995;17:303-20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hajjeh RA, Conn LA, Stephens DS, et al. Cryptococcosis: population-based multistate active surveillance and risk factors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. Cryptococcal Active Surveillance Group. J Infect Dis 1999;179:449-54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hajjeh RA, Sofair AN, Harrison LH, et al. Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:1519-27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Gibbs DL, et al. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK global antifungal surveillance study, 1997-2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47:117-23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Boyken L, et al. Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004). J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:2163-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rees JR, Pinner RW, Hajjeh RA, Brandt ME, Reingold AL. The epidemiological features of invasive mycotic infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1992-1993: results of population-based laboratory active surveillance. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27: 1138-47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trick WE, Fridkin SK, Edwards JR, Hajjeh RA, Gaynes RP, National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System H. Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989-1999. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:627-30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Viscoli C, Girmenia C, Marinus A, et al. Candidemia in cancer patients: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1071-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kao AS, Brandt ME, Pruitt WR, et al. The epidemiology of candidemia in two United States cities: results of a population-based active surveillance. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:1164-70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Diekema DJ, Messer SA, Brueggemann AB, et al. Epidemiology of candidemia: 3-year results from the emerging infections and the epidemiology of Iowa organisms study. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:1298-302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Asmundsdottir LR, Erlendsdottir H, Gottfredsson M. Increasing incidence of candidemia: results from a 20-year nationwide study in Iceland. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:3489-92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Laupland KB, Gregson DB, Church DL, Ross T, Elsayed S. Invasive Candida species infections: a 5 year population-based assessment. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005;56:532-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Poikonen E, Lyytikainen O, Anttila VJ, Ruutu P. Candidemia in Finland, 1995-1999. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:985-90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sandven P, Bevanger L, Digranes A, et al. Candidemia in Norway (1991 to 2003): results from a nationwide study. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:1977-81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morgan J, Wannemuehler KA, Marr KA, et al. Incidence of invasive aspergillosis following hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplantation: interim results of a prospective multicenter surveillance program. Med Mycol 2005;43(Suppl 1):S49-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tortorano AM, Peman J, Bernhardt H, et al. Epidemiology of candidaemia in Europe: results of 28-month European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) hospital-based surveillance study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2004;23:317-22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Marchetti O, Bille J, Fluckiger U, et al. Epidemiology of candidemia in Swiss tertiary care hospitals: secular trends, 1991-2000. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:311-20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roden MM, Zaoutis TE, Buchanan WL, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:634-53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Horn DL, Fishman JA, Steinbach WJ, et al. Presentation of the PATH alliance registry for prospective data collection and analysis of the epidemiology, therapy, and outcomes of invasive fungal infections. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2007;59:407-14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Neofytos D, Horn D, Anaissie E, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: analysis of Multicenter Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:265-73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increase in Coccidioidomycosis – Arizona, 1998-2001. MMWR – Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52:109-12.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increase in Coccidioidomycosis – California, 2000-2007. MMWR – Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009;58:105-9.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sunenshine RH, Anderson S, Erhart L, et al. Public health surveillance for coccidioidomycosis in Arizona. Ann NY Acad Sci 2007;1111:96-102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ascioglu S, Rex JH, de Pauw B, et al. Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an international consensus. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:7-14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:1813-21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Coccidioides (Coccidioides spp., Valley fever) 2008 case definition: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. (Accessed December 1, 2009, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncphi/disss/nndss/casedef/coccidioid2008.htm.)
  44. 44.
    Chang DC, Burwell LA, Lyon GM, et al. Comparison of the use of administrative data and an active system for surveillance of invasive aspergillosis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:25-30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hardnett FP, Hoekstra RM, Kennedy M, Charles L, Angulo FJ, Emerging Infections Program FoodNet Working Group. Epidemiologic issues in study design and data analysis related to FoodNet activities. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38(Suppl 3):S121-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Voetsch AC, Van Gilder TJ, Angulo FJ, et al. FoodNet estimate of the burden of illness caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38(Suppl 3): S127-34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, et al. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:607-25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crump JA, Luby SP, Mintz ED. The global burden of typhoid fever. Bull World Health Organ 2004;82:346-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Crump JA, Youssef FG, Luby SP, et al. Estimating the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:539-44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Revised Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2002 Estimates: World Health Organization, 2002. (Accessed December 1, 2009, at http://www.who.int/healthinfo/bodgbd2002revised/en/index.html.)
  51. 51.
    Park BJ, Wannemuehler KA, Marston BJ, Govender N, Pappas PG, Chiller TM. Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS 2009;23:525-30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Panackal AA, Dahlman A, Keil KT, et al. Outbreak of invasive aspergillosis among renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 2003;75:1050-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vonberg RP, Gastmeier P. Nosocomial aspergillosis in outbreak settings. J Hosp Infect 2006;63:246-54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chamany S, Mirza SA, Fleming JW, et al. A large histoplasmosis outbreak among high school students in Indiana, 2001. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23:909-14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Huhn GD, Austin C, Carr M, et al. Two outbreaks of occupationally acquired histoplasmosis: more than workers at risk. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:585-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kauffman CA. Endemic mycoses: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2006;20:645-62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chang DC, Grant GB, O’Donnell K, et al. Multistate outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution. JAMA 2006;296:953-63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grant GB, Fridkin S, Chang DC, Park BJ. Postrecall surveillance following a multistate fusarium keratitis outbreak, 2004 through 2006. JAMA 2007;298:2867-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chang DC, Anderson S, Wannemuehler K, et al. Testing for coccidioidomycosis among patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14:1053-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kim MM, Blair JE, Carey EJ, Wu Q, Smilack JD. Coccidioidal pneumonia, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 2000-2004. Emerg Infect Dis 2009;15:397-401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Valdivia L, Nix D, Wright M, et al. Coccidioidomycosis as a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:958-62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cox RA, Magee DM. Coccidioidomycosis: host response and vaccine development. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004;17:804-39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Barnato AE, Sanders GD, Owens DK. Cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine for Coccidioides immitis. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7:797-806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Capilla J, Clemons KV, Liu M, Levine HB, Stevens DA. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis. Vaccine 2009;27:3662-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tarcha EJ, Basrur V, Hung CY, Gardner MJ, Cole GT. Multivalent recombinant protein vaccine against coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 2006;74:5802-13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Xue J, Chen X, Selby D, Hung CY, Yu JJ, Cole GT. A genetically engineered live attenuated vaccine of Coccidioides posadasii protects BALB/c mice against coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun 2009;77:3196-208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ampel NM, Giblin A, Mourani JP, Galgiani JN. Factors and outcomes associated with the decision to treat primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:172-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Perfect JR, Dismukes WE, Dromer F, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease: 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2010;50:291-322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Longley N, Muzoora C, Taseera K, et al. Dose response effect of high-dose fluconazole for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Southwestern Uganda. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:1556-61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pappas PG, Chetchotisakd P, Larsen RA, et al. A phase II randomized trial of amphotericin B alone or combined with fluconazole in the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:1775-83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goodman JL, Winston DJ, Greenfield RA, et al. A controlled trial of fluconazole to prevent fungal infections in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 1992;326:845-51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marr KA, Seidel K, Slavin MA, et al. Prolonged fluconazole prophylaxis is associated with persistent protection against candidiasis-related death in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Blood 2000;96:2055-61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Slavin MA, Osborne B, Adams R, et al. Efficacy and safety of fluconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after marrow transplantation – a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Infect Dis 1995;171:1545-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cornely OA, Maertens J, Winston DJ, et al. Posaconazole vs. fluconazole or itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia. N Engl J Med 2007;356:348-59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ullmann AJ, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, et al. Posaconazole or fluconazole for prophylaxis in severe graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med 2007;356:335-47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Winston DJ, Pakrasi A, Busuttil RW. Prophylactic fluconazole in liver transplant recipients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:729-37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lumbreras C, Cuervas-Mons V, Jara P, et al. Randomized trial of fluconazole versus nystatin for the prophylaxis of Candida infection following liver transplantation. J Infect Dis 1996;174:583-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sharpe MD, Ghent C, Grant D, Horbay GL, McDougal J, David Colby W. Efficacy and safety of itraconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after orthotopic liver transplantation: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Transplantation 2003;76:977-83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kaufman D. Fluconazole prophylaxis decreases the combined outcome of invasive Candida infections or mortality in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2008;122:1158-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kaufman D, Boyle R, Hazen KC, Patrie JT, Robinson M, Donowitz LG. Fluconazole prophylaxis against fungal colonization and infection in preterm infants. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1660-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kaufman D, Boyle R, Hazen KC, Patrie JT, Robinson M, Grossman LB. Twice weekly fluconazole prophylaxis for prevention of invasive Candida infection in high-risk infants of <1000 grams birth weight. J Pediatr 2005;147:172-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kicklighter SD, Springer SC, Cox T, Hulsey TC, Turner RB. Fluconazole for prophylaxis against candidal rectal colonization in the very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics 2001;107:293-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Burwell LA, Kaufman D, Blakely J, Stoll BJ, Fridkin SK. Antifungal prophylaxis to prevent neonatal candidiasis: a survey of perinatal physician practices. Pediatrics 2006;118:e1019-26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    McKinsey DS, Wheat LJ, Cloud GA, et al. Itraconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1049-56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Powderly WG, Finkelstein D, Feinberg J, et al. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med 1995;332:700-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Smith DE, Bell J, Johnson M, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of itraconazole capsules for the prevention of deep fungal infections in immunodeficient patients with HIV infection. HIV Med 2001;2:78-83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chariyalertsak S, Supparatpinyo K, Sirisanthana T, Nelson KE. A controlled trial of itraconazole as primary prophylaxis for systemic fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection in Thailand. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34:277-84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Chetchotisakd P, Sungkanuparph S, Thinkhamrop B, Mootsikapun P, Boonyaprawit P. A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of primary cryptococcal meningitis prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with severe immune deficiency. HIV Med 2004;5:140-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Walsh TJ, Anaissie EJ, Denning DW, et al. Treatment of aspergillosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:327-60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maertens J, Theunissen K, Verhoef G, et al. Galactomannan and computed tomography-based preemptive antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients at high risk for invasive fungal infection: a prospective feasibility study. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:1242-50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Maertens J, Van Eldere J, Verhaegen J, Verbeken E, Verschakelen J, Boogaerts M. Use of circulating galactomannan screening for early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 2002;186:1297-306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Lagrou K, Van Eldere J, Boogaerts M. Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective validation. Blood 2001;97:1604-10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Segal BH, Almyroudis NG, Battiwalla M, et al. Prevention and early treatment of invasive fungal infection in patients with cancer and neutropenia and in stem cell transplant recipients in the era of newer broad-spectrum antifungal agents and diagnostic adjuncts. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:402-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cordonnier C, Pautas C, Maury S, et al. Empirical versus preemptive antifungal therapy for high-risk, febrile, neutropenic patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48: 1042-51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hovette P, Soko TO, Raphenon G, Camara P, Burgel PR, Garraud O. Cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS patients: an emerging opportunistic infection in Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1999; 93:368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Desmet P, Kayembe KD, De Vroey C. The value of cryptococcal serum antigen screening among HIV-positive/AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Zaire. AIDS 1989;3:77-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lara-Peredo O, Cuevas LE, French N, Bailey JW, Smith DH. Cryptococcal infection in an HIV-positive Ugandan population. J Infect 2000;41:195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Liechty CA, Solberg P, Were W, et al. Asymptomatic serum cryptococcal antigenemia and early mortality during antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 2007;12:929-35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tassie JM, Pepper L, Fogg C, et al. Systematic screening of cryptococcal antigenemia in HIV-positive adults in Uganda: JAIDS 2003;33:411-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Micol R, Lortholary O, Sar B, et al. Prevalence, determinants of positivity, and clinical utility of cryptococcal antigenemia in Cambodian HIV-infected patients. JAIDS 2007;45:555-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin J. Park
    • 1
  • Tom M. Chiller
  • Mary E. Brandt
  • David W. Warnock
  1. 1.Mycotic Diseases Branch and Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic DiseasesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations