Advertisement

Early Neolithic, the First Farmers in Europe, 7000–5500/5000 BC

  • Sarunas Milisauskas
Chapter
Part of the Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology book series (IDCA)

Abstract

In most of Europe the Neolithic is defined as the time segment starting with the appearance of farming communities and lasting until the appearance of bronze metallurgy, which marks the beginning of the Bronze Age. The east Baltic, Belarus, and Russian Neolithic however is defined by the appearance of pottery and polished stone tools (Gimbutas 1956, Dolukhanov 1979, Rimantienė 1996, Dolukhanov et al. 2005). Zhilin (2000:287) has pointed out that if the Neolithic were defined by the presence of farming, then there would be no Neolithic in the forest zone of eastern Europe.

Keywords

Emmer Wheat Projectile Point Mesolithic Site Early Neolithic Site Mother Goddess 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Akeret, O., and Rentzel, P., 2001, Micromorphology and plant macrofossil analysis of cattle dung from the Neolithic lake shore settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3. Geoarchaeology- An International Journal 16(6):687–700.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, C., 2001, The scholars and goddess. The Atlantic Monthly 287(1):18–22.Google Scholar
  3. Ammerman, A.J., and Biagi, P., eds., 2003, The Widening Harvest, The Neolithic Transition in Europe: Looking Forward, Looking Back. Boston, MA, Archaeological Institute of America.Google Scholar
  4. Ammerman, A.J., and Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 1972, Measuring the rate of spread of early farming in Europe. Man 6:674–688.Google Scholar
  5. Ammerman, A.J., and Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 1984, The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Ammerman, A.J., Pinhasi, R., and Bánffy, E., 2006, Comment on “Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites”. Science 312(5782):1875.Google Scholar
  7. Andersen, N.H., 1988, The Neolithic causewayed enclosures at sarup, on south-west Funen, Denmark, in Enclosures and Defences in the Neolithic of Western Europe, C. Burgess, P. Topping, C. Mordant and M. Maddison, eds., pp. 337–363. Oxford, British Archaeological Reports.Google Scholar
  8. Andersen, N.H., 1997, The Sarup Enclosures. Moesgard, Jutland Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  9. Angel, J.L., 1973, Early Neolithic people of Nea Nikomedeia, in Die Anfänge des Neolithikums vom Orient bis Nordeuropa, H. Schwabedissen, ed., pp. 103–112. Cologne, Teil VIIIa, Anthropologie, Böhlau.Google Scholar
  10. Anthony, D.W., and Brown, D.R., 2000, Eneolithic horse exploitation in the Eurasian steppes: Diet, ritual and riding. Antiquity 74:75–86.Google Scholar
  11. Arbogast, R.-M., 2001, Variabilité de la representation des animaux et statut de la chasse sur les sites du Rubané du nord de la France, in Rôle et statut de la chasse dans le Néolithique ancient danubien (5500-4900 av. J.C.), R.-M. Arbogast, C. Jeunesse, and J. Schibler, eds., pp. 77–90. Rahden/Westf, Verlag Marie Leidorf.Google Scholar
  12. Arias, P., 1999, The origins of the Neolithic along the Atlantic coast of continental Europe: A survey. Journal of World Prehistory 13(4):403–464.Google Scholar
  13. Arias, P., 2007, Neighbours but diverse: Social change in north-west Iberia during the transition from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic (5500–4000 cal BC), in Going Over: The Mesolithic Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe, A. Whittle and V. Cummings, eds., pp. 225–242. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Atalay, S., and Hastorf, C., 2006, Food meals and daily activities: The Habitus of food practices at Neolithic Çatalhöyük. American Antiquity 71(2):283–319.Google Scholar
  15. Bach, A., 1978, Neolithische Populationen im Mittelelbe-Saale Gebiet. Weimar, Weimarer Monographien zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte.Google Scholar
  16. Bailey, D.W., 1994, Reading prehistoric figurines as individuals. World Archaeology 25:321–331.Google Scholar
  17. Bailey, D.W., 1996, The life, times and works of House 59, Tell Ovcharovo, Bulgaria, in Neolithic Houses in Northwest Europe and Beyond, T. Darvill and J. Thomas, eds., pp. 143–156. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  18. Bailey, D.W., 2000, Balkan Prehistory. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Bailey, D.W., 2005, Prehistoric Figurines: Representation and Corporeality in the Neolithic. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Bailey, D.W., 2007, The anti-rhetorical power or representational absence, incomplete figurines from the Balkan Neolithic, in Imagine and Imagination, C. Renfrew and I. Morley, eds., pp. 117–126. Cambridge, McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  21. Bakels, C.C., 1978, Four Linearbandkeramik Settlements and Their Environment: A Paleoecological Study of Sittard, Stein, Elsloo and Hienheim. Leiden, Leiden University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bánffy, E., 2003, Die balkanischen und lokalen (?) Wurzeln der Glaubenswelt des mitteleuropäischen Linearbandkeramik-Gruppen. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 54:1–25.Google Scholar
  23. Bánffy, E., 2008, The boundary in western Transdanubia: Variations of migration and adaptation, in Living Well Together, D. Bailey, A. Whittle, and D. Hofmann, eds., pp. 151–163. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  24. Bánffy, E., and Oross, K., 2010, The earliest and earlier phase of the LBK in Transdanubia, in Die Neolithisierung Mitteleuropas, D. Gronenborn and J. Petrasch, eds., pp. 255–272. Mainz, Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum.Google Scholar
  25. Bar-Yosef, O., 2004, Guest editorial: East to west-agricultural origins and dispersal into Europe. Current Anthropology (Supplement), 45:S1–S3.Google Scholar
  26. Barbujani, G., and Bertorelle, G., 2001, Genetics and the population history of Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(1):22–25.Google Scholar
  27. Barbujanim, G., Sokal, R.R., and Oden, N.L., 1995, Indo-European origins: A computer simulation test of five hypotheses. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 96:109–132.Google Scholar
  28. Barker, G., 1985, Prehistoric Farming in Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Barker, G., 2006, The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers Become Farmers?. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Barnett, W.K., 1990, Small-scale transport of early Neolithic pottery in the west Mediterranean. Antiquity 64(245):859–865.Google Scholar
  31. Bartosiewicz, L., 2007, Making a living: Further technicalities, in The Early Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain: Investigations of the Körös Culture Site of Ecsegfalva 23, County Békés, Vol. II, A. Whittle, ed., pp. 733–742. Budapest, Varia Archaeologica Hungarica XXI.Google Scholar
  32. Becker, H., Bertemes, F., Biehl, P.F., and Schier, W., 2005, Zwischen Himmel und Erde. Archäologie in Deutschland 6:40–43.Google Scholar
  33. Benecke, N., 1994, Archäozoologische Studien zur Entwicklung der Haustierhaltung in Mitteleuropa und Südskandinavien von den Anfängen bis zum ausgehenden Mittelalter. Berlin, Schriften fur Ur-und Frühgeschichte 46.Google Scholar
  34. Benecke, N., 2006, Animal husbandry and hunting in the early Neolithic of south-east Europe – A review, in Aegean – Marmara – Black Sea: The Present State of Research in the Early Neolithic, I. Gatsov, and H. Schwarzberg, eds., pp. 175–185. Langenweissbach, Beier and Beran.Google Scholar
  35. Bennet, J., and Galaty, M., 1997, Ancient Greece: Recent developments in Aegean archaeology and regional studies. Journal of Archaeological Research 5(1):75–120.Google Scholar
  36. Bentley, A., and Knipper, C., 2005, Transhumance at the early Neolithic settlement at Vaihingen (Germany). Antiquity 79(306):1–3.Google Scholar
  37. Bentley, R.A., Krause, R., Price, T.D., and Kaufmann, B., 2003, Human mobility at the early Neolithic settlement of Vaihingen, Germany: Evidence from strontium isotope analysis. Archaeometry 45:481–496.Google Scholar
  38. Bentley, R.A., Price, T.D., Lüning, J., Gronenborn, D., and Fullager, P.D., 2002, Prehistoric migration in Europe: Strontium isotope analysis of early Neolithic skeletons. Current Anthropology 43:799–804.Google Scholar
  39. Bertemes, F., and Northe, A., 2006, Neolithisches Heiligtum in prähistorischer Kulturlandschaft: Die Abschlussuntersuchungen in der Kreisgrabenanlage von Goseck und weitere Grabungen in deren Umgebung. Archuäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt 4(2):269–281.Google Scholar
  40. Beyneix, A., 2007, Réflexions sur les débuts de la guerre au Néolithique en Europe occidentale. L’anthropologie 111:79–95.Google Scholar
  41. Biagi, P., 2003, A Review of the late Mesolithic in Italy and its implication for the Neolithic transition, in The Widening Harvest. The Neolithic Transition in Europe: Looking Forward, Looking Back, A.J. Ammerman and P. Biagi, eds., pp. 133–156. Boston, MA, Archaeological Institute of America.Google Scholar
  42. Biagi, P., Maggi, R., and Nisbet, R., 1989, Liguria: 11,000–7000 BP, in The Mesolithic in Europe, C. Bonsall, ed., pp. 533–540. Edinburgh, John Donald.Google Scholar
  43. Bickle, P., and Hofmann, D., 2007, Moving on: The contribution of isotope studies to the early Neolithic of Central Europe. Antiquity 81:1029–1041.Google Scholar
  44. Biehl, P.F., 1996, Symbolic communication systems: Symbols on anthropomorphic figurines of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic from South-Eastern Europe. Journal of European Archaeology 4:153–176.Google Scholar
  45. Biehl, P.F., 2007a, Enclosing places: A contextual approach to cult and religion in Neolithic central Europe, in Cult in Context: Comparative Approaches to Prehistoric and Ethnographic Religious Practices, C. Malone, ed., pp. 173–182. Oxford, Oxbow.Google Scholar
  46. Biehl, P.F., 2007b, Figurines in action: Methods and theories in figurine research, in A Future for Archaeology, R. Layton, S. Shennan, and P. Stone, eds., pp. 199–215. Walnut Creek, CA, Left Coast Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  47. Binford, L.R., 1972, An Archaeological Perspective. New York, NY, Seminar Press.Google Scholar
  48. Bintliff, J., 1976, The plain of western Macedonia and the Neolithic site of Nea Nikomedeia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 42:241–262.Google Scholar
  49. Biró, K.T., 1998, Stones, numbers-history? The utilization of lithic raw materials in the middle and late Neolithic of Hungary. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:1–18.Google Scholar
  50. Bogaard, A., 2004, Neolithic Farming in Central Europe: An Archaeobotanical Study of Crop Husbandry Practices. London and New York, NY, Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Bogucki, P., 1979, Neolithic bird remains from Brześć Kujawski. Ossa:33–40.Google Scholar
  52. Bogucki, P., 1982, Early Neolithic Subsistence and Settlement in the Polish Lowlands. Oxford, BAR, International Series 150.Google Scholar
  53. Bogucki, P., 1988, Forest Farmers and Stockherders: Early Agriculture and Its Consequences in North-Central Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Bogucki, P., 1996, The spread of early farming in Europe. American Scientist 84:242–253.Google Scholar
  55. Bökönyi, S., 1972, Zoological evidence for seasonal or permanent occupation of prehistoric settlements, in Man, Settlement and Urbanism, P.J. Ucko, R. Tringham, and G.W., Dimbleby, eds., pp. 1–6. London, Gerald Duckworth and Co, A Warner Modular Publication, Reprint 4.Google Scholar
  56. Bradley, R., 1998, The Passage of Arms: An Archaeological Analysis of Prehistoric Hoard and Votive Deposits, 2nd ed. Oxford, Oxbow.Google Scholar
  57. Bramanti, B., Thomas, M.G., Haak, W., Unterlaender, M., Jores, P., Tambets, K., Antanaitis-Jacobs, I., Haidle, M.N., Jankauskas, R., Kind, C.-J., Lueth, F., Terberger, T., Hiller, J., Matsumura, S., Forster, P., and Burger, J. 2009. Genetic Discontinuity Between Local Hunter-Gatherers and Central Europe’s First Farmers. Published online in 10.1126/Science.1176869.Google Scholar
  58. Broodbank, C., 1999, Colonization and configuration in the insular Neolithic of the Aegean, in Neolithic Society in Greece, P. Halstead, ed., pp. 15–41. Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
  59. Broodbank, C., and Strasser, T.F., 1991, Migrant farmers and the Neolithic colonization of Crete. Antiquity 65(247):233–245.Google Scholar
  60. Budja, M., 1993, Neolithisation of Europe, the Slovene aspect. Porocilo 21:179–193.Google Scholar
  61. Burger, J., Gronenborn, D., Forster, P., Matsumura, S., Bramanti, B., and Haak, W., 2006, Response to Comments on “Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites”. Science 312:1875.Google Scholar
  62. Burgess, C., Topping, P., Mordant, C., and Maddison, M., eds., 1988, Enclosures and Defences in the Neolithic of Western Europe. Oxford, British Archaeological Reports.Google Scholar
  63. Buzea, D., 2006, Altars and miniature tables belonging to the Cucuteni-Ariuşd culture, discovered at Pauleni Ciuc-Ciomartan ‘Dambul Cetatii’ Hargita County. Acta Terrae Septemecastrensis 5:127–158.Google Scholar
  64. Cahen, D., 1984, Organization du village rubané de Darion. Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d’Anthropologie et du Préhistoire 95:35–45.Google Scholar
  65. Cahen, D., 1985, Interprétations nouvelles du site de Darion. Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d’Anthropologie et du Préhistoire 96:75–86.Google Scholar
  66. Carli-Thiele, P., Teegen, W.-R., and Schultz, M., 1995, Paläopathologische Untersuchungen an den Skeleten der subadulten Individuen der neolithischen Populationen von Aiterhofen (Bayern) und Wandersleben (Thüringen), in Linearbandkeramische Gräberfelder in Bayern, N. Nieszerny, ed., pp. 235–239. Espelkamp, Verlag Marie L. Leidorf.Google Scholar
  67. Carman, J., and Harding, A., eds., 1999, Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives. Stroud, Sutton.Google Scholar
  68. Castelletti, L., 1988, Anthrakologische Untersuchungen, in Der bandkeramische Siedlungsplatz Langweiler 8, U. Boelicke, D. von Brandt, J. Lüning, P. Stehli and A. Zimmermann, eds., pp. 853–881. Köln, Rheinland-Verlag GmbH.Google Scholar
  69. Cauvin, J., 1994, Naissance des divinités. Naissance de l’agriculture. La Révolution des Symboles au Néolithique. Paris, CNRS.Google Scholar
  70. Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Menozzi, P., and Piazza, A., 1994, The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Chapman, J.C., 1982, The secondary products revolution and the limitations of the Neolithic. University of London, Institute of Archaeology Bulletin 19:107–122.Google Scholar
  72. Chapman, J.C., 1988, Ceramic production and social differentiation: The Dalmatian Neolithic and the western Mediterranean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 1(2):3–25.Google Scholar
  73. Chapman, J.C., 1989, The early Balkan village. Varia Archaeologica Hungarica 2:33–53.Google Scholar
  74. Chapman, J.C., 1990, Social inequality on Bulgarian tells and the Varna problem, in The Social Archaeology of Houses, R. Samson, ed., pp. 49–92. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Chapman, J.C., 1994, The origins of farming in south east Europe. Préhistoire Européenne 6:133–156.Google Scholar
  76. Chapman, J.C., 1999, The origins of warfare in the prehistory of central and eastern Europe, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, J. Carman and A. Harding, eds., pp. 101–142. Phoenix Mill, Sutton Publishing.Google Scholar
  77. Chapman, J., Higham, T., Slavchev, V., Gaydarska, B., and Honch, N., 2006, The social context of the emergence, development and abandonment of the Varna Cemetery, Bulgaria. European Journal of Archaeology 9(2–3):159–183.Google Scholar
  78. Cherry, J.F., 1990, The first colonization of the Mediterranean islands: A review of recent research. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 3(2):145–221.Google Scholar
  79. Chikhi, L., Nichols, R., Barbujani, G., and Beaumont, M.A., 2002, Y genetic data support the Neolithic diffusion model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:11008–11013.Google Scholar
  80. Childe, V.G., 1929, The Danube in Prehistory. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Childe, V.G., 1957, The Dawn of European Civilization. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.Google Scholar
  82. Childe, V.G., 1958, The Prehistory of European Society. Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  83. Christensen, J., 2004, Warfare in the European Neolithic. Acta Archaeologica 75(2):129–156.Google Scholar
  84. Christensen, A.-M., Holm, P.M., Schuessler, U., and Petrasch, J., 2006, Indications of a major Neolithic trade route? An archaeometric geochemical and Sr, Pb isotope study on amphibolitic raw material from present day Europe. Applied Geochemistry 21:1635–1655.Google Scholar
  85. Clutton-Brock, J., 1981, Domesticated Animals from Early Times. London, British Museum.Google Scholar
  86. Coleman, J.E., 1992, Greece, the Aegean and Cyprus, in Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, Vol. II, R.W. Ehrich, ed., pp. 203–221. Chicago, IL, The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  87. Cook, S.F., 1972, Prehistoric Demography. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Modular Publications 16.Google Scholar
  88. Cooney, G., 2000, Landscapes of Neolithic Ireland. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Copley, M.S., Berstan, R., Dudd, S.N., Docherty, G., Mukherjee, A.J., Straker, V., Payne, S., and Evershed, R.P., 2003, Direct chemical evidence for widespread dairying in prehistoric Britain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(4):1524–1529.Google Scholar
  90. Coudart, A., 1991, Social structure and relationships in prehistoric small-scale sedentary societies: The Bandkeramik groups in Neolithic Europe, in Between Bands and States, S.A. Gregg, ed., pp. 395–420. Carbondale, IL, Southern Illinois University.Google Scholar
  91. Coudart, A., 1998, Architecture et société néolithique: L’unité et la variance de la maison danubienne. Paris, Éditions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.Google Scholar
  92. Courtin, J., Evin, J., and Thommeret, Y., 1985, Révision de la stratigraphie et la chronologie absolute du site de Châteauneuf-les-Martigues (Bouches-du-Rhône). L’Anthropologie 89:543–556.Google Scholar
  93. Craig, O.E., Chapman, J., Figler, A., Patay, P., Taylor, G., and Collins, M.J., 2003, ‘Milk Jugs’ and other myths of the copper age of central Europe. Journal of European Archaeology 6(3):251–266.Google Scholar
  94. Craig, O.E., Chapman, J., Heron, C., Willis, L.H., Bartosiewicz, L., Taylor, G., Whittle, A., and Collins, M., 2005, Dairy food production in Europe. Antiquity 79:882–894.Google Scholar
  95. Currat, M., and Excoffier, L., 2005, The effects of the neolithic expansion on European molecular diversity. Proceedings of Royal Society, Biological Sciences 272(1564):679–688.Google Scholar
  96. Czekaj-Zastawny, A., 2008, Osadnictwo społeczności kultury ceramiki wstęgowej rytej w dorzeczu górnej Wisły. Kraków, Instytut archeologii i Etnologii Polskiej Akademii Nauk.Google Scholar
  97. Czerniak, L., 1994, Wczesny i środkowy okres neolitu na Kujawach, 5400 – 3650 p.n.e. Poznań, Polska Akademia Nauk.Google Scholar
  98. Darvill, T., and Thomas, J., eds., 2001, Neolithic Enclosures in Atlantic Northwest Europe. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  99. de Grooth, M.E.Th., 1977, Silex der Banderkeramik, in Die neolithische Besiedlung bei Hienheim, Ldkr. Kelheim, P.J.R. Modderman, ed., pp. 59–70. Kallmünz, Michael Lassleben.Google Scholar
  100. de Grooth, M.E.Th., and Van de Velde, P., 2005, Colonists on the loess? Early Neolithic A: Bandkeramik culture, in The Prehistory of the Netherlands, Vol. I, L.P. Louwe Kooijmans, P.W. van den Broeke, H. Fokkens, and A.L. van Gijn, eds., pp. 219–241. Amsterdam, University Press Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  101. Demoule, J.-P., 2001, Archaeology of cult and religion: A comment on how to study irrationality rationally, in Archaeology of Cult and Religion, P.F. Biehl, F. Bertemes, and H. Meller, eds., pp. 279–284. Budapest, Archaeolingua.Google Scholar
  102. Demoule, J.-P., and Perlès, C., 1993, The Greek Neolithic: A new review. Journal of World Prehistory 7(4):355–416.Google Scholar
  103. Dennell, R.W., 1972, The interpretation of plant remains: Bulgaria, in Papers in Economic Prehistory, E.S. Higgs, ed., pp. 149–159. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Dennell, R.W., 1974, Neolithic flax in Bulgaria. Antiquity 48(191):220–222.Google Scholar
  105. Dennell, R.W., 1983, European Economic Prehistory. New York, NY, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  106. Dohrn-Ihmig, M., 1979, Bandkeramik an Mittel-und Niederrhein, in Beiträge zur Urgeschichte des Rheinlandes III, pp. 191–362. Rheinische Ausgrabungen 19.Google Scholar
  107. Dolukhanov, P.M., 1979, Ecology and Economy in Neolithic Eastern Europe. London, Duckworth.Google Scholar
  108. Dolukhanov, P., Shukurov, A., Gronenborn, D., Sokoloff, D., Timofeev, V., and Zaitseva, G., 2005, The chronology of Neolithic dispersal in central and eastern Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:1441–1458.Google Scholar
  109. Donahue, R.E., 1992, Desperately seeking Ceres: A critical examination of current models for the transition to agriculture in Mediterranean Europe, in Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory, A.B. Gebauer and T.D. Price, eds., pp. 73–80. Madison, WI, Prehistory Press.Google Scholar
  110. Evans, J.D., 1994, The early millennia: Continuity and change in a farming settlement, in Knossos: A Labyrinth of History, D. Evely, H. Hughes-Brock and N. Momigliano, eds., pp. 1–20. Athens, The British School at Athens.Google Scholar
  111. Excoffier, L., and Schneider, S., 1999, Why hunter-gatherer populations do not show signs of pleistocene demographic expansions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96:10597–10602.Google Scholar
  112. Faruggia, J.P., Guichard, Y., and Hachem, L., 1996, Les ensembles funéraires rubanés de Menneville ‘Derriere le Village’ (Aisne, France), Actes du XVIIeme colloque Interrégional sur le Néolithique, Dijon, octobre 1991. Revue Archéologique de l’Est, 14eme supplement:119–174.Google Scholar
  113. Flannery, K., 1976, The early formative household cluster on the Guatemalan Pacific coast, in The Early Mesoamerican Village, K. Flannery, ed., pp. 31–34. New York, NY, Academic.Google Scholar
  114. Fokkens, H., 1998, Drowned Landscape: The Occupation of the Western Part of the Frisian-Drentian Plateau, 4400 BC–AD 500. Assen, Van Gorcum.Google Scholar
  115. Frirdich, C., 2005, Struktur und Dynamik der bandkeramischen Landnahme, in Die Bandkeramik im 21. Jahrhundert, J. Lüning, C. Frirdich, and A. Zimmermann, eds., pp. 81–109. Rahden/Westf, Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH.Google Scholar
  116. Gallay, G., and Schweitzer, R., 1971, Das Bandkeramische Gräberfeld von Rixeim (Dep. Haut-Rhin). Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 1(1):15–22.Google Scholar
  117. Garfinkel, Y., 2003, Dancing at the Dawn of Agriculture. Austin, University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  118. Gaydarska, B., Chapman, J., Raduncheva, A., and Koleva, B., 2007, The chaine opératoire approach to prehistoric figurines: An example from Dolnoslav, Bulgaria fragments, in Image and Imagination, C. Renfrew and I. Morley, eds., pp. 171–184. Cambridge, McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  119. Geddes, D., 1985, Mesolithic domestic sheep in west Mediterranean Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 12:25–48.Google Scholar
  120. Gheorghiu, D., 2005, The controlled fragmentation of anthropomorphic figurines, in Cucuteni, 120 Years of Research, Time to Sum Up, G. Dumitroaia, J. Chapman, O. Weller, C. Preoteasa, R. Munteanu, D. Nicola, and D. Monah, eds., pp. 137–144. Piatra-Neamţ, Constantin Matasă.Google Scholar
  121. Ghiasta, M., Russell, T., Shennan, S., and Steele, J., 2003, Neolithic transition in Europe: The radiocarbon dates revisited. Antiquity 77:45–66.Google Scholar
  122. Gimbutas, M., 1956, The Prehistory of Eastern Europe. Cambridge, MA, Peabody Museum.Google Scholar
  123. Gimbutas, M., 1970, Obre Yugoslavia: Two Neolithic sites. Archaeology 28(4):287–297.Google Scholar
  124. Gimbutas, M., 1974a, Anza, ca. 6500–5000 B.C.: A cultural yardstick for the study of Neolithic southeast Europe. Journal of Field Archaeology 1(1/2):27–66.Google Scholar
  125. Gimbutas, M., 1974b, The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe: 7000–3500 BC. Berkeley, CA and Los Angeles, CA, University of California Press.Google Scholar
  126. Gimbutas, M., 1982, The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe: 6500–3500 BC. Berkeley, CA and Los Angeles, University of California Press.Google Scholar
  127. Gimbutas, M., 1989, The Language of the Goddess. London, Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  128. Gimbutas, M., 1991, The Civilization of the Goddess: The World of Old Europe. San Francisco, CA, Harper.Google Scholar
  129. Giot, P.-R., 1994, Atlantic Europe during the Neolithic, in History of Humanity, Vol. I, S.J. De Laet, ed., pp. 570–588. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  130. Glass, M., 1991, Animal Production Systems in Neolithic Central Europe. Oxford, BAR International Series 572.Google Scholar
  131. Godelier, M., 1977, Perspectives in Marxist Anthropology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  132. Golitko, M., and Keeley, L.H., 2007, Beating ploughshares into swords: Warfare in the Linearbandkeramik. Antiquity 81:332–342.Google Scholar
  133. Gramsch, B., 1973, Das Mesolithikum im Flachland zwischen Elbe und Oder. Berlin, VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  134. Greenfield, H., 1993, Zooarchaeology, taphonomy, and the origin of food production in the central Balkans, in Culture and Environment: A Fragile Coexistence, R.W. Jamieson, S. Abonyi, and N.A. Mirau, eds., pp. 111–117. Calgary, University of Calgary Archaeological Association.Google Scholar
  135. Greenfield, H., 2005, A reconsideration of the secondary products revolution in south-eastern Europe: On the origins and use of domestic animal milk, wool, and traction in the central Balkans, in The Zooarchaeology of Milk and Fats, J. Mulville, and A. Outram, eds., pp. 14–31. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  136. Gregg, S.A., 1988, Foragers and Farmers: Population Interaction and Agricultural Expansion in Prehistoric Europe. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  137. Groenman-van Waateringe, W., 1978, The impact of Neolithic man on the landscape in the Netherlands, in The Effect of Man on the Landscape: The Lowland Zone, S. Limbrey and J.G. Evans, eds., pp. 135–146. Oxford, Council for British Archaeology Research Report 21.Google Scholar
  138. Groenman-van Waateringe, W., 1979, The origin of crop weed communities composed of summer annuals. Vegetatio 41(2):57–59.Google Scholar
  139. Gronenborn, D., 1999, A variation on a basic theme: The transition to farming in southern central Europe. Journal of World Prehistory 13(2):123–210.Google Scholar
  140. Gronenborn, D., 2007, Beyond the models: Neolithisation in Central Europe, in Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe, A. Whittle and V. Cummings, eds., pp. 73–98. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Grygiel, R., 1986, The household cluster as a fundamental social unit of the Brześć Kujawski group of the Lengyel culture. Prace i Materialy Muzeum Archeologicznego i Etnograficznego w Lodzi 31:43–334.Google Scholar
  142. Guilaine, J., and Manen, C., 2007, From Mesolithic to early Neolithic in the western Mediterranean, in Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe, A. Whittle and V. Cummings, eds., pp. 21–51. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Guilaine, J., and Zammit, J., 2005, The Origins of War: Violence in Prehistory. Malden, MA, Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  144. Gumiński, W., 2005, Bird for dinner: Stone age hunters at Dudka and Szczepanki, Masurian Lakeland, NE-Poland. Acta Archaeologica 76:111–148.Google Scholar
  145. Haak, W.P., Brandt, G., de Jong, H.N., Meyer, C., Ganslmeier, R., Heyd, V., Hawkesworth, C., Pike, A.W.G., Meller, H., and Alt, K.W., 2008, Ancient DNA, strontium isotopes, and osteological analyses Shed light of social and kinship organization of the later stone age. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(47):18226–18231.Google Scholar
  146. Haak, W., Forster, P., Bramanti, B., Matsumura, S., Brandt, G., Tänzer, M., Villems, R., Renfrew, C., Gronenborn, D., Alt, K.W., and Burger, J., 2005, Ancient DNA from the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites. Science 310:1016–1018.Google Scholar
  147. Haaland, G., and Haaland, R., 1996, Levels of meaning in symbolic objects. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6(2):295–300.Google Scholar
  148. Hachem, L., 1995, La représentation de la chasse dans les espaces villageois rubanés de la vallée de l’Aisne (France). Anthropozoologica 21:197–205.Google Scholar
  149. Hachem, L., 2001, La conception du monde animal sauvage chez les éleveurs du Rubané, in Rôle et statut de la chasse dans le Néolithique ancient danubien (5500–4900 av. J.C.), R.-M. Arbogast, C. Jeunesse, and J. Schibler, eds., pp. 91–111. Rahden/Westf, Verlag Marie Leidorf.Google Scholar
  150. Halstead, P., 1999, Neighbors from Hell? The household in Neolithic Greece, in Neolithic Society in Greece, P.Halstead, ed., pp. 77–95. Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
  151. Hansen, S., 2007, Bilder fom Menschen der Steinzeit: Untersuchungen zur antropomorphen Plastik der Jungsteinzeit und Kupferzeit in Südosteuropa. Mainz, Philipp von Zabern.Google Scholar
  152. Hansen, J.M., and Renfrew, J., 1978, Palaeolithic-Neolithic seed remains at Franchthi cave, Greece. Nature 271:349–352.Google Scholar
  153. Harlan, J.R., 1995, The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Häusler, A., 1966, Zum Verhältnis von Männern, Frauen und Kindern in Brabern der Steinzeit. Arbeits und Forschungsberichte zur Sächsischen Bodendenkmalpflege 14(15):25–73.Google Scholar
  155. Häusser, A., 1998, Katalog, in Krieg oder Frieden: Herxheim vor 7000 Jahren, A. Hausser, ed., pp. 62–71. Herxheim.Google Scholar
  156. Hawkes, J., 1951, A Land. London, Cresset.Google Scholar
  157. Higham, T.F.G., Chapman, J., Slavchev, V., Gaydarska, B., Honch, N., Yordanov, Y., and Dimitrova, B., 2007, New perspectives on the Varna cemetery (Bulgaria) – AMS dates and social implications. Antiquity 81:640–654.Google Scholar
  158. Hiller, S., 1990, Neue Ausgrabungen in Karanovo, in Vinča and its world: International symposium, The Danubian region from 6000 to 3000 BC, D. Srejović and N. Tasić, eds., pp. 197–206. Belgrade, Serbian Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  159. Höckmann, O., 1968, Die menschengestaltige Figuralplastik der südost europäischen Jungsteinzeit und Steinkupferzeit. Hildesheim, Lax.Google Scholar
  160. Höckmann, O., 1975, Wehranlagen der jüngeren Steinzeit, in Ausgrabungen in Deutschland, Teil III, pp. 278–296. Mainz.Google Scholar
  161. Höckmann, O., 1990, Frühneolithisches Einhegungen in Europa. Jahresschrift für mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte 73:57–86.Google Scholar
  162. Hodder, I., 1990, The Domestication of Europe. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  163. Hofmann, D., and Bickle, P., eds., 2009, Creating Communities: New Advances in Central European Neolithic Research. Oxford and Oakville, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  164. Hopf, M., 1971, Vorgeschichtliche Pfanzenreste aus Ostpanien. Madrider Mitteilungen 12:101–114.Google Scholar
  165. Hopf, M., 1975, Frühe Kulturpflanzen aus Bulgarien. Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 20(1973):1–55.Google Scholar
  166. Horváth, F., 1989, A survey on the development of Neolithic settlement pattern and house types in the Tisza region, in Neolithic of Southeastern Europe and Its Near Eastern Connections, S. Bőkőnyi, ed., pp. 85–96. Budapest, Varia Archaeologica Hungarica II.Google Scholar
  167. Howell, J.M., 1983, Settlement and Economy in Neolithic Northern France. Oxford, BAR International Series 157.Google Scholar
  168. Hüster-Plogmann, H., Schibler, J., and Steppan, K., 1999, The relationship between wild animal exploitation, climatic fluctuations, and economic adaptations: A transdisciplinary study on Neolithic sites from the lake Zürich region, southwest Germany and Bavaria. Internationale Archäologie 8:189–200.Google Scholar
  169. Hutton, R., 1997, The Neolithic great goddess: A study in modern tradition. Antiquity 71(271):91–99.Google Scholar
  170. Ijzereef, G.F., 1981, Bronze Age Animal Bones from Bovenkarspel: The Excavation at Het Valkje. Amersfoort, ROB.Google Scholar
  171. Jacobsen, T.W., and Cullen, T., 1981, A Consideration of mortuary practices in Neolithic Greece: Burials from Franchthi cave, in Mortality and Immortality: The Anthropology and Archaeology of Death, S.C. Humphreys and H. King, eds., pp. 79–101. New York, NY, Academic.Google Scholar
  172. Jarman, H.N., 1976, Early crop agriculture in Europe, in Origine de L’Elevage et de la Domestication, E.S. Higgs, ed., pp. 116–141. Nice, UISPP.Google Scholar
  173. Jeunesse, C., 1987, La céramique de La Hoguette. Un nouvel “élement non-rubané” du néolithique ancien de l’Europe du Nord-Ouest. Cahiers Alsaciens 30:5–33.Google Scholar
  174. Jeunesse, C., 1997, Pratiques funéraires au Néolithique Ancien: Sépultures et nécropoles danubiennes 5500–4900 av. J.-C. Paris, Éditions Errance.Google Scholar
  175. Jochim, M., 1998, A Hunter-Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic. New York, NY, Plenum.Google Scholar
  176. Johnson, G.A., 1973, Local Exchange and Early State Development in Southwestern Iran. Ann Arbor, MI, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  177. Kaczanowska, M., and Kozłowski, J.K., 1976, Studia nad surowcami krzemiennymi południowej części Wyżyny Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej. Acta Archaeologica Carpathica 16:201–219.Google Scholar
  178. Kadrow, S., ed., 2010. Bilcze Złote. Materiały kultury trypolskiej ze stanowiska Werteba i Ogród. Kraków.Google Scholar
  179. Kahlke, D., 1954, Die Bestattungssitten des Donauländischen Kulturkreises der jüngeren Steinzeit, Vol. I, Linienbandkeramik. Berlin, Rütten and Loening.Google Scholar
  180. Kalicz, N., 1970, Götter aus Ton, das Neolithikum und die Kupferzeit in Ungarn. Budapest, Corvina.Google Scholar
  181. Kalicz, N., 1995, Die älteste transdanubische (mitteleuropäische) Linienbandkeramik. Aspekte zu Ursprung, Chronologie und Beziehungen. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 47:23–59.Google Scholar
  182. Kalicz, N., 1998, Das Frühneolithikum im Karpatenbecken, in Das Neolithikum in Mitteleuropa, Band 1-2, J. Preuss, ed., pp. 257–262. Weissbach, Beier and Beran.Google Scholar
  183. Kalicz, N., and Makkay, J., 1977, Die Linienbandkderamik in der Grossen Ungarischen Tiefebene. Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó.Google Scholar
  184. Kamieńska, J., and Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa, A., 1970, The Neolithic and early bronze age settlement at Samborzec in the Sandomierz district. Archaeologia Polona 12:223–246.Google Scholar
  185. Kaufmann, D., 1977, Entdeckung und Vermessung einer befestigten linienbandkeramischen Siedlung bei Eilsleben, Kr. Wanzleben. Zeitschrift für Archäologie 11:93–100.Google Scholar
  186. Kaufmann, D., 1979, Gedankenzur Neolithisierung im südwesten der DDR, in Paczątki neolityzacji Polski poludniowo-zachodniej, W. Wojciechowski, ed., pp. 105–119. Wroclaw.Google Scholar
  187. Kaufmann, D., 1990, Jahresschrift für mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte. Berlin, Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte in Halle, Band 73.Google Scholar
  188. Kaufmann, D., 1997, Zur Funktion linienbandkeramischer Erdwerke. Niederbayerischer Archäologentag 15:41–87.Google Scholar
  189. Keeley, L.H., 1996, War before Civilization. New York, NY, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Keeley, L.H., and Cahen, D., 1989, Early neolithic forts and villages in NE Belgium: A preliminary report. Journal of Field Archaeology 16:157–176.Google Scholar
  191. Keeley, L.H., and Quick, R., 2004, Warfare and conquest, in Ancient Europe B.C. – A.D. 1000: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World, P. Bogucki and P.J. Crabtree, eds., pp. 110–118. New York, NY, Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  192. Kertész, R., 1996, The Mesolithic in the great Hungarian plain: A survey of the evidence, in At the Fringes of Three Worlds: Hunter-gatherers and Farmers in the Middle Tisza Valley, L. Talás, ed., pp. 5–34. Szolnok, Damjanich Museum Press, Szolnok County Museum.Google Scholar
  193. Kertész, R., Sümegi, P., Kozák, M., Braun, M., Félegyházi, E., and Hertelandi, E., 1994, Archaeological and Paleoecological Study of an Early Holocene Settlement in the Jászág Area (Jászberéry I). Acta Geographica 32:5–49.Google Scholar
  194. Kind, C.-J., 1998, Komplexe Wildbeuter und frühe Ackerbauern: Bemerkungen zur Ausbreitung der Linearbandkeramik in südlichen Mitteleuropa. Germania 76(1):1–24.Google Scholar
  195. Knapp, M., Vigilant, L., and Hofreiter, M., 2008, Ancient DNA: Phylogenetic applications, in Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, pp. 1–4. Chichester, Wiley.Google Scholar
  196. Knipper, C., 2009, Mobility in a sedentary society: Insights from isotope analysis of LBK human and animal teeth, in Creating Communities: New Advances in central European Neolithic Research, D. Hofmann and P. Bickle, eds., pp. 142–158. Oxford and Oakville, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  197. Knörzer, K.-H., 1971, Urgeschichtliche Unkräuter im Rheinland: Ein Beitrag zur Enstehung der Segetalgesellschaften. Vegetatio 23:89–111.Google Scholar
  198. Kooijmans, L.P.L., 1993, The Mesolithic/Neolithic transformation in the lower Rhine Basin, in Case Studies in European Prehistory, P. Bogucki, ed., pp. 95–145. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press.Google Scholar
  199. Kotsakis, K., 1999, What tells can tell: Social space and settlement in the Greek Neolithic, in Neolithic Society in Greece, P. Halstead, ed., pp. 66–76. Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
  200. Kovárnik, J., Květ, R., and Podborský, V., 2006, Europe’s oldest civilization and its rondels: The real story. Antiquity 80, http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/kvet/index.html.
  201. Kozłowski, J.K., 1998, Periodyzacja i chronologia pradziejów ziem polskich, in Wielka Historia Polski, Tom 1, Najdawniejsze Dzieje Ziem Polskich (do VII w.), P. Kaczanowski and J.K. Kozłowski, eds., pp. 39–46. Kraków, Fogra Oficyna Wydawnycza.Google Scholar
  202. Kozłowski, J.K., 1999, Rozprzestrzenianie się gospodarki wytwórczej z pierwotnych centrów neolityzacji obszaru starego świata i jej adaptacja do warunków środowiskowych umiarkowanej strefy w Eurazji, in Encyklopedia Historyczna Świata, Tom I., J.K. Kozłowski, ed., pp. 151–172. Kraków, Wydawnicza Opres.Google Scholar
  203. Kozłowski, J.K., and Kozłowski, S.K., 1977, Epoka kamienia na ziemiach polskich. Warsaw, PWN.Google Scholar
  204. Krause, R., 1999, Die bandkeramischen Siedlungsgrabungen bei Vaihingen an der Enz, Kreis Ludwigsburg (Baden-Württemberg). Mainz, Berichte der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 1998.Google Scholar
  205. Kreuz, A., 1990, Die ersten Bauern Mitteleuropas. Eine archäobotanische Untersuchung zu Umwelt und Landwirtschaft der ältesten Bandkeramik. Leiden, Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 23.Google Scholar
  206. Kreuz, A., 2008, Closed forest or pen woodlands as natural vegetation in the surroundings of Linearbandkeramik settlements?. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17:51–64.Google Scholar
  207. Kruk, J., 1973, Studia osadnicze nad neolitem wyźyn lessowych. Wroclaw, Ossolineum.Google Scholar
  208. Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa, A., 1970, The Linear and Stroked Pottery cultures, in The Neolithic in Poland, T. Wiślański, ed., pp. 14–75. Warsaw, Wroclaw.Google Scholar
  209. Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa, A., 1979, Pierwsze spoleczeństwa rolnicze na ziemiach polskich. Kultury kręgu naddunajskiego, in Pradzieje ziem polskich, t. II, Neolit, W. Hensel and T. Wiślański, eds., pp. 19–164. Wrocław, Ossolineum.Google Scholar
  210. Lazarovici, Gh., 1990, Über neo-bis äneolithische Befestingungen aus Rumänien. Jahresschrift für Mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte 73:93–117.Google Scholar
  211. Lazarovici, C.-M., 2006, Anthropomorphic statuettes from Cucuteni-Tripolye: Some signs and symbols. Documenta Praehistorica 32:145–154.Google Scholar
  212. Lech, J., 1981, Flint mining among the early farming communities of central Europe, Part I. Przeglad Archeologiczny 28:5–55.Google Scholar
  213. Lech, J., 1989, A Danubian raw material exchange network: A case study from Bylany, in Bylany Seminar1987, J. Rulf, ed., pp. 111–120. Prague, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  214. Leighton, R., 1999, Sicily before History. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  215. Lenneis, E., 1995, Altneolithikum: Die Bandkeramik, in Jungsteinzeit im Osten Österreichs, E. Lenneis, C. Neugebauer-Maresch, and E. Ruttkay, eds., pp. 11–56. St. Pölten-Wiens Niederösterreichisches Pressehaus.Google Scholar
  216. Lenneis, E., 2001, The beginning of the Neolithic in Austria – a report about recent and current investigations. Documenta Praehistorica 28:99–116.Google Scholar
  217. Lenneis, E., Stadler, P., and Windl, H., 1996, Neue 14C Daten zum Frühneolithikum in Österreich. Prehistoire Européenne 8:97–116.Google Scholar
  218. Lesure, R., 2007, Modes of explanation for prehistoric imagery: Juggling universalist, historicist and contextualist approaches in the study of early figurines, in Image and Imagination, C. Renfrew and I. Morley, eds., pp. 31–47. Cambridge, McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  219. Lichardus, J., 1988, Der westpontische Raum und die Anfance der kupferzeitlichen Zivilisation, in Macht, Herrscahft und Gold, Fol, A. and Lichardus, J., eds., pp. 79–130. Saarbrücken, Saarland Museum.Google Scholar
  220. Lichardus, J., 1991, Kupferzeit als historische Epoche. Eine forschungsgeschichtliche Einleitung, in Die Kupferzeit als Historische Epoche, Teil I, J. Lichardus, ed., pp. 13–32. Bonn, Rudolf Habelt.Google Scholar
  221. Lichardus, J., Lichardus-Itten, M., Bailloud, G., and Cauvin, J., 1985, La Protohistoire de l’Europe, le Néolithique et le Chalcolithique. Paris, Nouvelle Clio, PUF.Google Scholar
  222. Lukes, A., and Zvelebil, M., 2004, LBK Dialogues : Studies in the Formation of the Linear Pottery Culture. Oxford, BAR International Series 1304.Google Scholar
  223. Lüning, J., 1982, Siedlung und Siedlungslandschaft in bandkeramischer und Rössener Zeit. Offa 39:9–33.Google Scholar
  224. Lüning, J., 1988, Zur Verbreitung und Datierung bandkeramischer Erdwerke. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 18(2):155–158.Google Scholar
  225. Lüning, J., 1994, Central Europe during the Neolithic, in History of Humanity, Vol. I, S.J. De Laet, ed., pp. 540–556. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  226. Lüning, J., 1998, L’organization régionale des habitats rubanés: Sites centraux et sites secondaires (groupements de sites). Anthropologie et Préhistoire 109:163–185.Google Scholar
  227. Lüning, J., 2000, Steinzeitliche Bauern in Deutschland – Die Landwirtschaft im Neolithikum. Bonn, Habelt.Google Scholar
  228. Lüning, J., 2005, Die Macht der Ahnen und ihrer Abbilder. Wer hatte das Sagen in der Gesellschaft, in Die Bandkeramiker: erste Steinzeitbauern in Deutschland. Bilder einer Ausstellung beim Hessentag in Heppenheim/Bergstraße im Juni 2004, J. Lüning, ed., pp. 272–284. Rahden/Westf, Verlag Marie Leidorf.Google Scholar
  229. Lüning, J., Kloos, U., and Albert, S., 1989, Westliche Nachbarn der bandkeramischen Kultur: Die Keramikgruppen La Hoguette und Limburg. Mit Beiträgen von J. Eckert und Chr. Strien. Germania 67(2):355–420.Google Scholar
  230. Lüning, J., and Meuers-Balke, J., 1980, Experimenteller Getreideanbau im Hambacher Forst, Gemeinde Elsdorf, Kr. Bergheim/Rheinland. Bonner Jahrbücher 180:305–344.Google Scholar
  231. Mainland, I.L., 2007, A microware analysis of selected sheep and goat mandibles, in The Early Neolothic on the Great Hungarian Plain: Investigations of the Körös Culture Site of Ecsegfalva 23, County Békés, Vol. 1, A. Whittel, ed., pp. 343–348. Budapest, Publicationes Instituti Archaeologici Academiae Scientiarium Hunaricae.Google Scholar
  232. Makkay, J., 2003, Prehistoric archaeology in Hungary in recent years, in Recent Research in the Prehistory of the Balkans, D.V. Grammenos, ed., pp. 487–537. Thessaloniki, Publications of the Archaeological Institute of Northern Greece.Google Scholar
  233. Malinowski, B., 1922/1961, Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York, NY, E. P. Dutton & Co.Google Scholar
  234. Mantu, C.-M., 1998, Culturea Cucuteni: Evolutie, Cronologie, Legături. Piatra Neamt, Muzeul de Istorie Piatra Neamt.Google Scholar
  235. Marchand, G., 2007, Neolithic fragrances: Mesolithic-Neolithic interactions in western France, in Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe, A. Whittle and V. Cummings, eds., pp. 225–242. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  236. Marciniak, A., 2005, Placing Animals in the Neolithic: Social Zooarchaeology of Prehistoric Farming Communities. London, UCL Press.Google Scholar
  237. Marcus, J., 1996, The importance of context in interpreting figurines. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6(2):285–300.Google Scholar
  238. Marinescu-Bîlcu, S., 1981. Tirpeşti : From Prehistory to History in Eastern Romania. Oxford, BAR International Series 107.Google Scholar
  239. Markevich, V.I., 1974, Bugo-dnestrovskaja kul’tura na territorii Moldavii. Kishinev, Shtiintsa.Google Scholar
  240. McClure, S.B., Jochim, M.A., and Barton, C.M., 2006, Human behavioral ecology, domestic animals and land use during the transition to agriculture in Valencia, eastern Spain, in Human Behavioral Ecology and the Transition of Agriculture, D.J. Kennett and B. Winterhalder, eds., pp. 197–216. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.Google Scholar
  241. McPherron, A., and Srejović, D., 1971, Early farmingcultures in central Serbia (eastern Yugoslavia), in A Preliminary Report and Guide to an Exhibit in the National Museum of Kragujevac. Kragujevac, National Museum of Kragujevac.Google Scholar
  242. Mercer, R.J., 1999, The origins of warfare in the British Isles, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, J. Carman and A. Harding eds., pp. 143–250. Phoenix Mill, Sutton Publishing.Google Scholar
  243. Merpert, N.J., 1994, The European part of the former USSR during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic, in History of Humanity, Vol. I, S.J. De Laet, ed., pp. 557–569. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  244. Midgley, M., 1992, TRB Culture: The First Farmers of the North European Plain. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  245. Midgley, M., 2004, Rondels of the Carpathians, in Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.–A.D. 1000: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World, Vol. I, P. Bogucki and P.J. Crabtree, eds., pp. 382–384. New York, NY, Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  246. Midgley, M.S., Pavlů, I., Rulf, J., and Zápotocká, M., 1993, Fortified settlements or ceremonial sites: New evidence from Bylany, Czechoslovakia. Antiquity 67(254):91–96.Google Scholar
  247. Mikov, V., 1959, The prehistoric mound of Karanovo. Archaeology 12(2):88–97.Google Scholar
  248. Milisauskas, S., 1977, Adaptations of the early Neolithic farmers in central Europe, in For the Director: Research Essays in Honor of James B. Griffin, C.E. Cleland, ed., pp. 295–316. Ann Arbor, MI, Anthropological Papers Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  249. Milisauskas, S., 1986, Early Neolithic Settlement and Society at Olszanica. Ann Arbor, MI, Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, no. 19.Google Scholar
  250. Milojčić, V., 1960, Präkeramisches Neolithikum auf der Balkanhalbinsel. Germania 38:320–335.Google Scholar
  251. Modderman, P.J.R., 1970, Linearbandkeramik aus Elsloo und Stein. Leiden, Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia III, Institut für Prähistorie der Universität zu Leiden.Google Scholar
  252. Modderman, P.J.R., 1971, Bandkeramiker und Wanderbauerntum. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 1(1):7–9.Google Scholar
  253. Modderman, P.J.R., 1986, On the typology of the houseplans and their European setting, in Theses on the Neolithic site of Bylany, I. Pavlů, J. Rulf and M. Zápotocká, eds. Památky Archeologické 77:383–394.Google Scholar
  254. Modderman, P.J.R., 1988, The linear pottery culture: Diversity in uniformity. Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodenmonderzoek 38:63–139.Google Scholar
  255. Monah, D., 1997, Plastica antropomorfa a culturii Cucuteni-Tripolie. Piatra-Neamţ, Muzeul de Istorie Piatra-Neamţ.Google Scholar
  256. Monah, D., 2003, Poduri Dealui Ghindaru o troie in Subcarpatii Moldovei. Piatra-Neamţ, Muzeul de Istorie Piatra- Neamţ.Google Scholar
  257. Morley, I., 2007, Material beginnings: An introduction to image and imagination, in Image and Imagination: A Global Prehistory of Figurative Representation, C. Renfrew and I. Morley, eds., pp. XVII–XXII. Cambridge, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  258. Mukherjee, A.J., Copley, M.S., Berstan, R., Clark, K.A., and Evershed, R.P., 2005, Interpretation of δ13C values of fatty acids in relation to animal husbandry: Food processing and consumption in prehistory, in Zooarchaeology of Fats, Oils, Milk and Dairying, J. Mulville and A.K. Outram, eds., pp. 77–93. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  259. Müller, H.-H., 1964, Die Haustiere der Mitteldeutschen Bandkeramik. Berlin, Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  260. Nandris, J., 1970, The development and relationships of the earlier Greek Neolithic. Man 5(2):192–213.Google Scholar
  261. Nanoglou, S., 2005, Subjectivity and material culture in Thessaly, Greece: The case of Neolithic anthropomorphic imagery. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15:141–156.Google Scholar
  262. Nelson, S.M., 1998, Introduction, in Ancestors for the Pigs: Pigs in Prehistory, Vol. 15, S.M. Nelson, ed., pp. 1–4. Philadelphia, PA, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology.Google Scholar
  263. Neustupný, E., 1983, Demografie pravěkých pohřebišt. Prague, Archeologicke Ustav ČSAV.Google Scholar
  264. Neustupný, E., and Dvořák, Z., 1983, Výživa pravěkých zemědělců: Model. Pamatký Archeologické 74:224–257.Google Scholar
  265. Newell, R.R., 1970, The flint industry of the Dutch Linearbandkeramik, in Linearbandkeramik aus Elsloo und Stein, P.J.R. Modderman, ed., pp. 144–183. Leiden, Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia III.Google Scholar
  266. Nieszerný, N., 1995, Linearbandkeramische Gräberfelder in Bayern. Espelkamp, Marie L. Leidorf.Google Scholar
  267. Nikolov, V., 1989, Das frühneolithische Haus von Sofia-Slatina: Eine Untersuchung zur vorgeschichlichen Bautechnik. Germania 67(1):1–49.Google Scholar
  268. Nobis, G., 1984, Die Haustiere im Neolithikum Zentraleuropas, in Die Anfänge des Neolithikums vom Orient bis Nordeuropa, H. Schwabedissen, ed., pp. 73–105. Köln, Böhlau.Google Scholar
  269. Nunez, M., 1991, On the food resources available to man in stone age Finland. Finskt Museum 1990:24–53.Google Scholar
  270. Orschiedt, J., and Haidle, M.N., 2007, The LBK enclosure of Herxheim: Theatre of war or ritual centre?. Journal of Conflict Archaeology 2:152–167.Google Scholar
  271. Osterhaus, U., 1975, Jungsteinzeitliche Gräberfelder am Donautal Gewinne und Verluste. Ausgrabungsnotizen aus Bayern 2:1–6.Google Scholar
  272. Osterhaus, U., and Pleyer, R., 1973, Ein bandkeramisches Gräberfeld bei Sengkofen, Ldkr. Regensburg. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 3(4):399–402.Google Scholar
  273. Otterbein, K.F., 1970, The Evolution of War: A Cross-Cultural Study. New Haven, CT, HRAF Press.Google Scholar
  274. Otterbein, K.F., 2004, How War Began. College Station, TX, Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
  275. Özdoğan, M., 1997, The beginning of the Neolithic economies in southeastern Europe: An Anatolian perspective. European Journal of Archaeology 5:1–33.Google Scholar
  276. Parkinson, W.A., 2002. The Archaeology of Tribal Societies. Ann Arbor, MI, International Monographs in Prehistory, Archaeological Series 15.Google Scholar
  277. Parkinson, W.A., and Duffy, P.R., 2007, Fortifications and enclosures in European prehistory: A cross-cultural perspective. Journal of Archaeological Research 15(2):97–141.Google Scholar
  278. Parkinson, W.A., Yerkes, R., and Gyucha, A., 2004, The transition to the early copper age on the great Hungarian plain: The Körös regional archaeological project excavations at Vészto-Bikeri and Körösladány-Bikeri, Hungary, 2000–2002. Journal of Field Archaeology 29(1):101–121.Google Scholar
  279. Pásztor, E., Barna, J.P., and Roslund, C., 2008, The orientation of rondels of the Neolithic Lengyel culture in central Europe. Antiquity 82:910–924.Google Scholar
  280. Pavlů, I., 2000, Life on a Neolithic Site: Bylany – Situational Analysis of Artefacts. Prague, Institute of Archaeology, Czech Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  281. Pavlů, I., Rulf, J., and Zápotocká, M., 1986, Theses on the Neolithic site of Bylany. Památky Archeologické 77:288–412.Google Scholar
  282. Pavúk, J., 1972, Neolithisches Gräberfeld in Nitra. Slovenská Archeológia 20(1):5–105.Google Scholar
  283. Pavúk, J., 1991, Lengyel-culture fortified settlements in Slovakia. Antiquity 65:348–357.Google Scholar
  284. Pavúk, J., 1994, Šturovo: Ein Siedlungsplatz der Kultur mit Linearkeramik und der Želiezovce-Gruppe. Nitra, Archäologisches Institut.Google Scholar
  285. Payne, S., 1973, Kill-off patterns of sheep and goats: The mandibles from Asvan Kale. Anatolian Studies 23:281–303.Google Scholar
  286. Pechtl, J., 2009, A monumental prestige patchwork, in Creating Communities: New Advances in Central European Neolithic Research, D. Hofmann and P. Bickle, eds., pp. 186–201. Oxford and Oakville, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  287. Perlès, C., 1992, Systems of exchange and organization of production in Neolithic Greece. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 5:115–164.Google Scholar
  288. Perlès, C., 1999, The distribution of Magoules in eastern Thessaly, in Neolithic Society in Greece, P. Halstead, ed., pp. 42–56. Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
  289. Perlès, C., 2001, The Early Neolithic in Greece: The First Farming Communities in Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  290. Perlès, C., and Vitelli, K.D., 1999, Craft specialization in the Neolithic of Greece, in Neolithic Society in Greece, P. Halstead ed., pp. 96–107. Sheffield, Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
  291. Peške, L., 1986, The results of osteological analyses, in Theses on the Neolithic site of Bylany, I. Pavlů, J. Rulf and M. Zápotocká, eds. Památky Archeologické 77:404–406.Google Scholar
  292. Petrasch, J., 1990, Mittelneolitische Kreisgrabenanlagen in Mitteleuropa. Bericht der Römisch-Germanische Kommission 71:407–564.Google Scholar
  293. Petrasch, J., 1999, Mord und Krieg in der Bandkeramik. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 29:505–516.Google Scholar
  294. Pfister, C., 1985, Klimageschichte der Schweiz 1525-1860. Bern and Stuttgart, Paul Haupt.Google Scholar
  295. Piggott, S., 1972, Conclusion, in Man, Settlement and Urbanism, P.J. Ucko, R. Tringham, and G.W. Dimbleby, eds., pp. 947–953. London, Duckworth.Google Scholar
  296. Pinhansi, R., and Pluciennik, M., 2004, A regional biological approach to the spread of farming in Europe: Anatolia, the levant, south-eastern Europe, and the Mediterranean. Current Anthropology (Supplement), 45:S59–S82.Google Scholar
  297. Pogozheva, A.P., 1985, Die Statuetten der Tripolje-Kultur. Beiträge zur Allgemeinen und Vergleidenden Archäologie (KAVA) 7:95–242.Google Scholar
  298. Preston, J.J., 1982, New perspectives on mother worship, in Mother Worship: Theme and Variations, J.J. Preston, ed., pp. 325–345. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  299. Price, T.D., 1987, The Mesolithic of western Europe. Journal of World Prehistory 1(3):225–305.Google Scholar
  300. Price, T.D., and Bentley, R.A., 2005, Human mobility in the Linearbandkeramik: An archaeometric approach, in Die Bandkeramik im 21 Jahrhundert, Lüning, J., Frirdich, C. and Zimmermann, A., eds., pp. 203–215. Rahden/Westf, Marie Leidorf.Google Scholar
  301. Price, T.D., Bentley, R.A., Lüning, J., Gronenborn, D., and Wahl, J., 2001, Prehistoric human migration in the Linearbandkeramik of central Europe. Antiquity 75:593–603.Google Scholar
  302. Price, T.D., Wahl, J., and Bentley, R.A., 2006, Isotopic evidence for mobility and group organization among Neolithic farmers at Talheim, Germany, 5000 BC. European Journal of Archaeology 9(2):259–284.Google Scholar
  303. Prostředník, J., Šída, P., Šrein, V., Šreinová, B., and Šťastný, M., 2005, Neolithic quarrying in the foothills of the Jizera mountains and the dating thereof. Archeologické Rozhledy 57(3):477–492.Google Scholar
  304. Raczky, P., Meier-Arendt, W., Hajdu, Z., Kurucz, K., and Nagy, E., 1996, Two unique assemblages from the late Neolithic tell settlement at Polgár-Csőszhalom, in Studien zur Metallindustrie im Karpatenbecken und den benachbarren Regionen: Festschrift für Amália Mozsolics zum 85, Geburtstag, T. Kovács, ed., pp. 17–31. Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum.Google Scholar
  305. Raczky, P., Meier-Arendt, W., Kurucz, K., Hajdu, Z., and Szikora, A., 1994, Polgár-Csőszhalom: A late Neolithic settlement in the upper Tisza region and its cultural connections. Jósa András Múzeum Évkonyve 36:231–312.Google Scholar
  306. Radunčeva, A., 1977, Prehistoric Art in Bulgaria from the 5th to the 2nd Millennium B.C. British Archaeological Reports. Oxford, International Series 13.Google Scholar
  307. Rappaport, R.A., 1967, Pigs for the Ancestors. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  308. Reid, P., 1977, An Analysis of Trade Mechanism in European Prehistory. Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms.Google Scholar
  309. Reingruber, A., 2008, Die Argissa Magula. Das frühe und das beginnende Neolithikum im Lichte transägäischer Beziehungen. Die deutschen Ausgrabungen auf der Argissa Magula II. Bonn, R. Habelt.Google Scholar
  310. Renfrew, J.M., 1969, The archaeological evidence for the domestication of plants: Methods and problems, in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, P.J. Ucko and G.W. Dimbleby, eds., pp. 149–172. Chicago, IL, Aldine-Atherton.Google Scholar
  311. Renfrew, J.M., 1973, Palaeoethnobotany: The Prehistoric Food Plants of the Near East and Europe. London, Methuen and Company.Google Scholar
  312. Renfrew, J.M., 1979, The first farmers in south-east Europe. Archaeo-Physika 8:243–265.Google Scholar
  313. Renfrew, C., 1987, Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. London, Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
  314. Renfrew, C., and Morley, I., 2007, Image and Imagination: A Global Prehistory of Figurative Representation. Cambridge, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  315. Ribe, G., Cruells, W., and Molist, M., 1997, The Neolithic of the Iberian Peninsula, in The Archaeology of Iberia: The Dynamics of Change, M. Diaz-Andreu and S. Keay, eds., pp. 65–84. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  316. Richards, M., 2003a, The Neolithic transition in Europe: Archaeological models and genetic evidence. Documenta Praehistorica XXX:159–167.Google Scholar
  317. Richards, M., 2003b, The Neolithic invasion of Europe. Annual Review of Anthropology 32:135–162.Google Scholar
  318. Richards, M., Corte-Real, H., Forster, P., Macaulay, V., Wilkinson-Herbots, H., Demaine, A., Papiha, S., Hegges, R., Baudet, H.-J., and Sykes, B., 1996, Paleolithic and Neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool. American Journal of Human Genetics 59:185–203.Google Scholar
  319. Rimantienė, R., 1996, Akmens Amžius Lietuvoje, 2nd ed. Vilnius, Žiburis.Google Scholar
  320. Robb, J., and Miracle, P., 2007, Beyond ‘migration’ versus ‘acculturation’: New models for the spread of agriculture, in Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe, A. Whittle and V. Cummings, eds., pp. 99–115. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  321. Rodden, R.J., 1962, Excavations at the early Neolithic site at Nea Nikomedeia, Greek Macedonia (1961 season). Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 28:267–288.Google Scholar
  322. Rowley-Conwy, P., 1981, Slash and burn in the temperate European Neolithic, in Farming Practice in British Prehistory, R. Mercer, ed., pp. 85–96. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  323. Rowley-Conwy, P., 1993, Faunal remains, in Arene Candide Functional and Environmental Profile of the Holocene Sequence, R.E. Maggi, R.I. Starnini, P. Macphail, P. Rowley-Conwy and B. Voytek, eds., pp. 348–350 (346–352). Bratislava, Actes du XIIe Congrès International de Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques, J. Pavúk, ed.Google Scholar
  324. Rowley-Conwy, P., 1995, Making first farmers younger: The west European evidence. Current Anthropology 36(2):346–353.Google Scholar
  325. Rowley-Conwy, P., 2005, Milking caprines, hunting pigs: The Neolithic economy of Arene Candide in its west Mediterranean context, in Animal Bones, Human Societies, P. Rowley-Conwy, ed., pp. 124–132. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  326. Rück, O., 2004, Zur Lage bandkeramischer Siedlungsplätze West – und Süddeutschland, Überlegungen zum Hausbau. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 34:309–319.Google Scholar
  327. Rück, O., 2007, Neue Aspeckte und Modelle in der Siedlungsforschung zur Bandkeramik die Siedlung Weisweiler III auf der Aldenhovener Platte, Kreis Düre. Rahden, Marie Leidorf.Google Scholar
  328. Rulf, J., 1982, Die Linienbandkeramik in Böhmen und die geographische Umwelt, in Siedlungen der Kultur mit Linearkeramik in Europa, B. Chropovský and J. Pavúk, eds., pp. 247–260. Nitra, Archaeological Institute.Google Scholar
  329. Rulf, J., 1983, Přirodni prostředi a kultury českého neolitu i eneolitu. Památky Archeologické 74:35–95.Google Scholar
  330. Runnels, C., and van Andel, T.H., 1988, Trade and the origins of agriculture in the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 1:83–109.Google Scholar
  331. Ryan, W.B.F., and Pitman, W., 1998, Noah’s Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event that Changed History. New York, NY, Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  332. Sahlins, M., 1963, Poor man, rich man, big man, chief: Political types in Melanesia and Polynesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History 5(3):285–303.Google Scholar
  333. Sahlins, M., 1968, Tribesmen. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  334. Sahlins, M., 1972, Stone Age Economic. Chicago, IL, Aldine-Atherton.Google Scholar
  335. Sangmeister, E., 1951, Zum Charakter der bandkeramischen Siedlung. 33 Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 1943–1950, pp. 89–109.Google Scholar
  336. Saxe, A.A., 1971, Social dimensions of mortuary in a Mesolithic population from Wadi Halfa, Sudan, in Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices, J.A. Brown, ed., pp. 39–57. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology 25.Google Scholar
  337. Scarre, C., 1992, The early Neolithic of western France and Megalithic origins in Atlantic Europe. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11(2):121–154.Google Scholar
  338. Scarre, C., 2007, Monuments and miniatures: Representing humans in Neolithic Europe 5000–2000 BC, in Image and Imagination: A Global Prehistory of Figurative Representation, C. Renfrew and I. Morley, eds., pp. 17–29. Cambridge, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  339. Schibler, J., Hüster-Plogmann, H., Jacomet, S., Brombacher, C., Gross-Klee, E., and Rast-Eicher, A., 1997, Ökonomie und Ökologie neolithischer und bronzezeitlicher Ufersiedlungen am Zürichsee, Monographien der Kantonsarchäologie Zürich 20.Google Scholar
  340. Schulting, R.J., 2006, Skeletal evidence and contexts of violence in the European Mesolithic and Neolithic, in The Social Archaeology of Funerary Remains, R. Gowland and C. Knüsel, eds., pp. 224–237. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  341. Schulting, R.J., and Wysocki, M., 2005, “In this chambered tumulus were found cleft skulls …”: An assessment of the evidence for cranial trauma in the British Neolithic. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 71:107–138.Google Scholar
  342. Schwarz-Mackensen, G., and Schneider, W., 1983, Woliegen die Hauptliefergebiete für das Rohmaterial Donauländischer Steinbeile und -äxte in Mitteleuropa?. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 13:305–314.Google Scholar
  343. Schweingruber, F., 1973, Holzarten, in Der bandkeramische Siedlungsplatz Langweiler2, J.-P. Farruggia, R. Kuper, J. Lüning, and P. Stehli, eds., pp. 152–156. Bonn, Rudolf Habelt.Google Scholar
  344. Schwellnus, W., 1983, Archäologische Untersuchungen im Rheinischen Braunkohlengebiet 1977–1981. Archäologie in den Rheinischen Lössborden, Rheinische Ausgrabungen 24:1–31.Google Scholar
  345. Semino, O., Passarino, G., Brega, A., Fellous, M., and Santachiara-Benerecetti, A.S., 1996, A view of the Neolithic demic diffusion in Europe through two Y chromosome-specific markers. American Journal of Human Genetics 59:964–968.Google Scholar
  346. Shackleton, N., and Renfrew, C., 1970, Neolithic trade routes re-aligned by oxygen isotope analyses. Nature 228:1062–1065.Google Scholar
  347. Sherratt, A.G., 1981, Plow and pastoralism: Aspects of the secondary products revolution, in Patterns of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke, I. Hodder, G. Isaac, and N. Hammond, eds., pp. 261–305. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  348. Sherratt, A.G., 1983, The Eneolithic period in Bulgaria in its European context, in Ancient Bulgaria, A.G. Poulter, ed., pp. 188–198. Nottingham, University of Nottingham Department of Archaeology.Google Scholar
  349. Sherratt, A.G., 1997, Economy and Society in Prehistoric Europe: Changing Perspectives. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  350. Shnirelman, V.A., 1992, The emergence of food-producing economy in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of eastern Europe. Journal of Indo-European Studies 20:123–143.Google Scholar
  351. Sielmann, B., 1972, Die frühneolitische Besiedlung Mitteleuropas, in Die Anfänge der Neolithikums vom Orient bis Nordeuropa, H. Schwabedissen, ed., pp. 1–65. Köln, Böhlau.Google Scholar
  352. Sofaer Derevenski, J., 2000, Rings of life: The role of early metalwork in mediating the gendered life course. World Archaeology 31(3):389–406.Google Scholar
  353. Sokal, R.R., Oden, N.L., and Wilson, A.C., 1991, New genetic evidence supports the origin of agriculture in Europe by demic diffusion. Nature 351:143–144.Google Scholar
  354. Soudský, B., 1962, The Neolithic site of Bylany. Antiquity 36(143):190–200.Google Scholar
  355. Soudský, B., 1966, Bylany osada nejstaršich zemědělců z mladši doby kammené. Prague, Československa akademie věd.Google Scholar
  356. Soudský, B., and Pavlů, I., 1972, The linear pottery culture settlement patterns in central Europe, in Man, Settlement and Urbanism, P.J. Ucko, R. Tringham, and G.W. Dimbleby, eds., pp. 317–328. London, Duckworth.Google Scholar
  357. Souvatzi, S.G., 2008, A Social Archaeology of Households in Neolithic Greece: An Anthropological Approach. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  358. Spatz, H., 1998, Krisen, Gewalt, Tod – zum Ende der ersten Ackerbauernkultur Mitteleuropas, in Krieg oder Frieden? Herxheim vor 7000 Jahren, A. Häusser, ed., pp. 10–18. Herxheim.Google Scholar
  359. Stadler, P., 2005, Settlement of the early ceramic culture at Brunn am Gebirge, Wolfholz site. Documenta Praehistorica 32:269–278.Google Scholar
  360. Stehli, P., 1989, Merzbachtal – Umwelt und Geschichte einer bandkeramischen Siedlungskammer. Germania 67:51–76.Google Scholar
  361. Stephan, E., 2005, Tierknochenfunde aus Rottenburg ‘Fröbelweg’, Kr. Tübingen. Ein Beitrag zur Wirtschaftweise in der Ältesten Bandkeramik, in Untersuchungen zur neolithischen Besiedlungsgeschichte des Oberen Gäus, J. Bofinger, ed., pp. 323–383. Stuttgart, Theiss.Google Scholar
  362. Stevanović, M., 1997, The age of clay: The social dynamics of house destruction. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 16:334–395.Google Scholar
  363. Stöckli, W.E., 1990, Der Beginn des Neolithikums in der Schweiz, in Die ersten Bauern, Vol. 1, M. Höneisen, ed., pp. 53–60. Zürich, Schweizerisches Landesmuseum Zürich.Google Scholar
  364. Taavitsainen, J.-P., Simola, H., and Gronlund, E., 1998, Cultivation history beyond the periphery: Early agriculture in the north european Boreal forest. Journal of World Prehistory 12(2):199–253.Google Scholar
  365. Tabaczyński, S., 1970, Neolit Środkowo Europejski: Podstawy Gospodarcze. Wrocław, Ossolineum.Google Scholar
  366. Talalay, L.E., 1987, Rethinking the function of clay figurine legs from Neolithic Greece: An argument by analogy. American Journal of Archaeology 91:161–169.Google Scholar
  367. Talalay, L.E., 2000, Archaeological Ms.conceptions: Contemplating gender and the Greek Neolithic, in Gender and Material Culture, M. Donald and L. Hurcombe, eds., pp. 3–16. London, Macmillan.Google Scholar
  368. Teschler-Nicola, M., Gerold, F., Kanz, F., Lindenbauer, K., and Spannagl, M., 1996, Anthropologische Spurensicherung – Die traumatischen und postmortalen Veränderungen an den linearbandkeramischen skelettresten von Asparn/Schletz, in Rätsel um Gewalt und Tod vor 7.000 Jahren, H. Windl, ed., pp. 47–62. Ausstellung im Museum für Urgeschichte Asparn a. d. Zaya.Google Scholar
  369. Theocharis, D.R., 1958, Ek tis prokeramikis Thessalias. Thessalia 1:70–86.Google Scholar
  370. Thomas, J.S., 1991, Rethinking the Neolithic. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  371. Thomas, J., 1996, Neolithic houses in mainland Britain and Ireland – A sceptical view, in Neolithic Houses in Northwest Europe and Beyond, T. Darvill and J. Thomas, eds., pp. 1–12. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  372. Thorpe, I.J., 1996, The Origins of Agriculture in Europe. New York, NY, Routledge.Google Scholar
  373. Thorpe, I.J.N., 2003, Anthropology, archaeology, and the origin of warfare. World Archaeology 35:145–165.Google Scholar
  374. Thorpe, I.J.N., 2006, Fighting and feuding in Neolithic and Bronze Age Britain and Ireland, in Warfare And Society. Archaeological and Social Anthropological Perspectives, T. Otto, H. Thrane and H. Vandkilde, eds., pp. 141–146. Aarhus, Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  375. Tilley, C., 1996, An Ethnography of the Neolithic: Early Prehistoric Societies in Southern Scandinavia. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  376. Tillmann, A., 1993, Kontinuität oder Diskontinuität? Zur Frage einer bandkeramischen Landnahme im südlichen Mitteleuropa. Archäologische Informationen 16:157–187.Google Scholar
  377. Todorova, H., 1978, The Eneolithic in Bulgaria. Oxford, BAR International Series 49.Google Scholar
  378. Todorova, H., 1980, Klassifikacja I cislovoj kod plastiki neolita, eneolita I rannej bronzovoj epocha Bolgarii. Studia Praehistorica 3:43–64.Google Scholar
  379. Todorova, H., 2003, Prehistory of Bulgaria, in Recent Research in the Prehistory of the Balkans, D.V. Grammenos, ed., pp. 257–317. Thessaloniki, Publications of the Archaeological Institute of Northern Greece 3.Google Scholar
  380. Tringham, R.E., 1971, Hunters, Fishers and Farmers of Eastern Europe: 6000–3000 B.C. London, Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  381. Tringham, R.E., 1991, Houses with faces: The challenge of gender in prehistoric architectural remains, in Engendering Archaeology: Women in Prehistory, J.M. Gero and M.W. Conkey, eds., pp. 93–131. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  382. Tringham, R.E., and Conkey, M., 1998, Rethinking figurines: A critical view from archaeology of Gimbutas, the ‘goddess’ and popular culture, in Ancient goddesses: The myths and the evidence, L. Goodison and C. Morris, eds., pp. 22–45. Madison, WI, University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  383. Tringham, R., and Stevanović, M., 1990, Field research, in Selevac: A Neolithic Village in Yugoslavia, R. Tringham and D. Krstić, eds., pp. 57–156. Los Angeles, CA, Institute of Archaeology, University of California.Google Scholar
  384. Trnka, G., 1991, Studien zu mittelneolithischen Kreisgrabenanlagen. Wien, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  385. Tschumi, O., 1949, Urgeschichte der Schweiz. Frauenfeld, Huber an Aktiengesellschaft.Google Scholar
  386. Turney-High, H., 1949, Primitive War: Its Practice and Concepts. Columbia, University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  387. Tykot, R.H., 2004, Neolithic exploitation and trade of obsidian in the central Mediterranean: New results and implications for cultural interaction, in Acts of the XIVth UISPP Congress, University of Liège, Belgium, 2–8 September 2001, Section 9: The Neolithic in the Near East and Europe, pp. 25–35. Oxford, BAR International Series 1303.Google Scholar
  388. Tykot, R.H., and Ammerman, A.J., 1997, New directions in central Mediterranean obsidian studies. Antiquity 71:1000–1006.Google Scholar
  389. Ucko, P.J., 1962, The interpretation of prehistoric anthropomorphic figurines. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 92:38–54.Google Scholar
  390. Ucko, P.J., 1968, Anthropomorphic Figurines of Predynastic Egypt and Neolithic Crete with Comparative Material from the Prehistoric Near East and Mainland Greece. London, A. Szmidla.Google Scholar
  391. Ucko, P.J., 1996, Mother, are you there?. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6:300–304.Google Scholar
  392. Uerpmann, M., and Uerpmann, H.-P., 1997, Remarks on the faunal remains of some early farming communities in central Europe. Anthropozoologica 25(26):571–578.Google Scholar
  393. Vajsov, I., 1984, Antropomorfnaja plastika iz praistoriceskogo poseloeniya Kurilo-Kremenitsa Sofijskogo okruga. Studia Praehistorica 7:33–64.Google Scholar
  394. Valamoti, S.M., 2007, Detecting seasonal movement from animal dung: An investigation in Neolithic northern Greece. Antiquity 81:1053–1064.Google Scholar
  395. van Andel, T.H., and Runnels, C.N., 1995, The earliest farmers in Europe. Antiquity 69:481–500.Google Scholar
  396. van Andel, T.H., Zangger, E., and Demitrack, A., 1990, Land use and soil erosion in prehistoric and historical Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology 17:379–396.Google Scholar
  397. van de Velde, P., 1979, The social anthropology of a Neolithic cemetery in the Netherlands. Current Anthropology 20(1):37–58.Google Scholar
  398. van de Velde, P., 1990, Banderkeramik social inequality-a case study. Germania 60:391–424.Google Scholar
  399. Vandkilde, H., 2003, Commemorative tales: Archaeological responses to modern myth, politics, and war. World Archaeology 35(1):126–144.Google Scholar
  400. Varndell, G., and Topping, P., eds, 2002, Enclosures in Neolithic Europe: Essays on Causewayed and Non-Causewayed Sites. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  401. Vencl, S., 1984, War and warfare in archaeology. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3:116–132.Google Scholar
  402. Vencl, S., 1999, Stone agewarfare, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, J. Carman and A. Harding, eds., pp. 57–72. Stroud, Sutton Publishers.Google Scholar
  403. Vosteen, M.U., 1996, Unter die Räder gekommen: Untersuchungen zu Sherratts “Secondary Products Revolution”. Bonn, Holos.Google Scholar
  404. Wahl, J., and König, H.G., 1987, Anthropologisch-traumatologische Untersuchungen der menschlichen Skelettreste aus dem bandderamischen Massengrab bei Talheim, Kreis Heilbronn. Fundberichte Baden-Württemberg 12:65–193.Google Scholar
  405. Wailes, B., 1970, The origins of settled farming in temperate Europe, in Indo-European and Indo-Europeans, G. Cardona, H.M. Hoenigswald, and A. Senn, eds., pp. 279–305. Philadelphia, PA, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  406. Wasylikowa, K., 1982, Pollen diagram from the vicinity of the linear pottery culture site in Cracow, in Siedlungen der Kultur mit Linearkeramik in Europa, B. Chropovský and J. Pavúk, eds., pp. 285–290. Nitra, Slovenská Akademie Vied.Google Scholar
  407. Watrous, L.V., 2001, Crete from earliest prehistory through the protopalatial period, in Aegean Prehistory: A Review, T. Cullen, ed., pp. 157–215. Boston, MA, Archaeological Institute of American.Google Scholar
  408. Weiner, J., 1993, Abfall, Holzgeräte und drei Brunnenkästen: Neue Ergebnisse der Ausgrabung der bandkeramischen Holzbrunnens. Archäologie im Rheinland 1992:27–30.Google Scholar
  409. Weiner, J., 1998, Drei Brunnenkästen, aber nur zwei Brunnen: Eine neue Hypothese zur Baugeschichte des Brunnens von Erkelenz-Kückhoven, in Brunnen der Jungsteinzeit, H. Koschik, ed., pp. 95–112. Köln, Rheinland-Verlag GmbH.Google Scholar
  410. Whittle, A., 1990, Radiocarbon dating of the linear pottery culture: The contribution of cereal and bone samples. Antiquity 64:297–302.Google Scholar
  411. Whittle, A., 1996a, Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  412. Whittle, A., 1996b, Houses in context: Buildings as process, in Neolithic Houses in Northwest Europe and Beyond, T. Darvill and J. Thomas, eds., pp. 13–26. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  413. Whittle, A., 1999, The Neolithic Period, c. 4000–2500/2200 BC, in The Archaeology of Britain: An Introduction from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Industrial Revolution, J. Hunter and I. Ralston, eds., pp. 58–76. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  414. Whittle, A., 2003, The Archaeology of People: Dimensions of Neolithic Life. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  415. Whittle, A., 2007, Going over: People and their times, in Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in Northeast Europe, A. Whittle and V. Cummings, eds., pp. 617–628. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  416. Whittle, A., 2009, The people who lived in longhouses: What’s the big idea?, in Creating communities: New Advances in Central European Neolithic Research, D. Hofmann and P. Bickle, eds., pp. 249–263. Oxford and Oakville, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  417. Whittle, A., and Cummings, V., 2007, Going Over: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in North-West Europe. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  418. Wielkie, N.C., and Savina, M.E., 1997, The earliest farmers in Macedonia. Antiquity 71:201–207.Google Scholar
  419. Wild, E.M., Stadler, P., Häußer, A., Kutschera, W., Steier, P., Teschler-Nicola, M., Wahl, J., and Windl, H., 2004, Neolithic massacres: Local skirmishes or general warfare in Europe?. Radiocarbon 46(1):377–385.Google Scholar
  420. Willerding, U., 1980, Zum Ackerbau der Bandkeramiker. Materialhefte zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Niedersachsens 16:421–456.Google Scholar
  421. Wilmsen, E.N., 1972, Introduction: The study of exchange as social interaction, in Social Exchange and Interaction, E.N. Wilmsen, ed., pp. 1–4. Ann Arbor, MI, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  422. Windl, H., 1996, Archäologie einer Katastrophe und deren Vorgeschichte, in Rätsel um Gewalt und Tod vor 7.000 Jahren, H. Windl, ed., pp. 7–29. Radinger-Druck, Ausstellung im Museum für Urgeschichte Asparn a.d. Zaya.Google Scholar
  423. Winter, M., 1976, The archaeological household cluster in the Valley of Oaxaca, in The Early Mesoamerican Village, K.V. Flannery, ed., pp. 25–31. New York, NY, Academic.Google Scholar
  424. Wiślański, T., 1969, Podstawy gospodarcze plemion neolitycznych w Polsce północno-zachodniej. Wrocław, Ossolineum.Google Scholar
  425. Yerkes, R.W., Sarris, A., Frolking, T., Parkinson, W.A., Gyucha, A., Hardy, M., and Catanoso, L., 2007, Geophysical and geochemical investigations at two early copper age settlements in the Körös river valley, southeastern Hungary. Geoarchaeology 22(8):845–871.Google Scholar
  426. Yoffee, N., 1993, Too many chiefs? (or, safe texts for the ‘90s), in Archaeological Theory: Who Sets the Agenda, N. Yoffee and A. Sherratt, eds., pp. 60–78. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  427. Youni, P., 1996, The early Neolithic pottery: Technology, typology, and functional analysis, in Nea Nikomedeia I: The Excavation of an Early Neolithic Village in Northern Greece, 1961–1964, The Excavation and the Ceramic Assemblage, K.A. Wardle, ed., pp. 55–193. London, The British School at Athens.Google Scholar
  428. Zhilin, M., 2000, Chronology of the transition from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic in the forest zone of eastern Europe. Lietuvos Archeologija 19:287–297.Google Scholar
  429. Zilhão, J., 1993, The spread of agro-pastoral economies across Mediterranean Europe: A view from the far west. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 6:5–63.Google Scholar
  430. Zilhão, J., 2000, From the Mesolithic to the Neolithic in the Iberian peninsula, in Europe’s First Farmers, T.D. Price, ed., pp. 144–182. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  431. Zilhão, J., 2001, Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization and the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(24):14180–14185.Google Scholar
  432. Zimmermann, A., 1995, Austauschsysteme von Silexartefakten in der Bandkeramik Mitteleuropas. Bonn, Rudolf Habelt.Google Scholar
  433. Zimmermann, A., 1996, Zur Bevölkerung in der Urgeschichte Mitteleuropas, in Spuren der Jagd – die Jagd nach Spuren, I. Campen, J. Hahn, and M. Uerpmann, eds., pp. 49–61. Tübingen, Mo Vince Verlag.Google Scholar
  434. Zvelebil, M., 1995, Neolithization in eastern Europe: A view from the frontier. Porocilo 22:107–149.Google Scholar
  435. Zvelebil, M., and Rowley-Conwy, P., 1984, Transition to Farming in Northern Europe: A Hunter-Gatherer Perspective. Norwegian Archaeological Review 17:104–128.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyState University of New YorkBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations