The Present Environment: A Geographic Summary

Part of the Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology book series (IDCA)


This chapter describes the present environment of Europe: topography, climate, and characteristic associations of plants, animals, and soils. It introduces the reader to the geography of the continent, develops the environmental background for the societies of the last 9,000 years, and provides a point of departure against which we can compare the environments of the more distant past.


Migration Europe Turkey Lime Willow 


  1. Shackleton, M.R., 1965, Europe: A Regional Geography, 7th ed. New York, NY, Frederick A. Praeger.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyState University of New YorkBuffaloUSA

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