Incentive for Aggression in American Football

  • Janice A. Hauge
Part of the Sports Economics, Management and Policy book series (SEMP, volume 4)


This chapter focuses on the United States’ National Football League (NFL) and the continuing attempt to control the level of violence inherent in the game. The study uses data from 1995 to 2009 to analyze the effect of violence and aggression on the success of a team and on fan attendance. Results show that penalties are negatively associated with wins from 1995 through 2005; after 2005, this relationship is statistically insignificant, although trends apparent in the data make it essential to watch the progression of this relationship. In addition, data suggest a correlation between attendance and more egregious rule infractions over the past five seasons; however, such correlation is not found to be statistically significant.


Rule Change National Football League Total Penalty Super Bowl Winning Percentage 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of North TexasDentonUSA

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