The Effect of Hooliganism on Greek Football Demand
This study estimates the effect of spectator violence on football demand based on the information of spectator disorder incidents in Greek football stadia. The results indicate that more serious incidents of spectator violence in and around stadia have a significant negative effect on attendance demand. These incidents involve stadium damages, violence toward players, referees, fans, and the police and resulting injuries. Less serious manifestations of stadium disorder do not have a negative effect on demand but have increased dramatically in the last years. The big five clubs Olympiakos, PAOK, Aris, AEK, and Panathinaikos seem to create the most incidents of spectator violence. Our results imply that there are economic gains to football clubs from effective spectator violence control.
KeywordsViolent Event Football Club Violent Incident Football Match Average Attendance
The authors wish to thank Emmanuel Petrou for his research assistance.
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