The Effect of Hooliganism on Greek Football Demand

Part of the Sports Economics, Management and Policy book series (SEMP, volume 4)


This study estimates the effect of spectator violence on football demand based on the information of spectator disorder incidents in Greek football stadia. The results indicate that more serious incidents of spectator violence in and around stadia have a significant negative effect on attendance demand. These incidents involve stadium damages, violence toward players, referees, fans, and the police and resulting injuries. Less serious manifestations of stadium disorder do not have a negative effect on demand but have increased dramatically in the last years. The big five clubs Olympiakos, PAOK, Aris, AEK, and Panathinaikos seem to create the most incidents of spectator violence. Our results imply that there are economic gains to football clubs from effective spectator violence control.


Violent Event Football Club Violent Incident Football Match Average Attendance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank Emmanuel Petrou for his research assistance.


  1. Arellano M, Bond SR (1991) Some Specification Tests for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations. Review of Economic Studies 58:277–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong G (1998) Football Hooligans: Knowing the Score. Berg: Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  3. Baltagi BH (1995) Econometric Analysis of Panel Data. Wiley: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  4. Birley D (1993) Sport and the Making of Britain. Manchester University: Manchester, UK.Google Scholar
  5. Bird P (1982) The Demand for League Football. Applied Economics 14:637–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borland J, Macdonald R (2003) Demand for Sport. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 19(4):478–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cairns (1990) The Demand for Professional Team Sports. British Review of Economic Issues 12:1–20.Google Scholar
  8. Courakis N (1998a) Violence in Greek Stadia: Between Theory and Reality. Proceedings of the 2nd Legal Conference of the Athens College Alumni Association, pp. 153–188 (in Greek).Google Scholar
  9. Courakis N (1998b) Football Violence: Not Only a British Problem. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research 6:293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Disciplinary Code (2010) Hellenic Football Federation.Google Scholar
  11. Dobson S, Goddard J (2001) The Economics of Football. Cambridge University: Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Downward P, Dawson A (2000) The Economics of Professional Team Sports. Routledge: London, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Dunning E, Murphy P, Williams J (1988) The Roots of Football Hooliganism: A Historical and Sociological Study. Routledge and Kegan Paul: London, UK.Google Scholar
  14. Dunning E (2000) Towards a Sociological Understanding of Football Hooliganism as a World Phenomenon. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research 8:141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. EPAE Sports Court (various dates) Sports Court Decisions, 1986 to 2006, No. 3/22.09.1986 – No. 440/2006Google Scholar
  16. Johnson RA, Wichern DW (1998) Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  17. King A (1997) The Postmodernity of Football Hooliganism. British Journal of Sociology 48(4):576–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kyriakos G (2007) Interview of Super League’s Commercial Director. Accessed online: (in Greek).
  19. Hsiao C (2007) Panel Data Analysis: Advantages and Challenges. Test 16:1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marsh P, Fox K, Carnibella G, McCann J, Marsh J (1996) Football Violence in Europe. Social Issues Research Center: Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  21. Madalozzo R, Villar R (2009) Brazilian Football: What Brings Fans to the Game? Journal of Sports Economics 10(6):639–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pearson, G (1983) Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears. Macmillan: London, UK.Google Scholar
  23. Pearson G (2007) University of Liverpool FIG Factsheet. Football Industry Group, University of Liverpool, last viewed March 31, 2010. Accessed online:
  24. Raykov T, Marcoulides GA (2008) An Introduction to Applied Multivariate Analysis. Routledge: New York, NY.Google Scholar
  25. Roadburg A (1980) Factors Precipitating Fan Violence: A Comparison of Professional Soccer in Britain and North America. British Journal of Sociology 31(2):256–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Roberts J, Benjamin C (2000) Spectator Violence in Sports: A North American Perspective. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research 8:163–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Simmons R (1996) The Demand for English League Football: A Club-Level Analysis. Applied Economics 28:139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Spaaij R (2006) Understanding Football Hooliganism. A Comparison of Six Western European Football Clubs. Vossiuspers UVA: Amsterdam, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  29. Super League (various dates) Violence Reports, 2008–09, 2009–10. Accessed online: (in Greek).
  30. Super League Sports Court (various dates) Sports Court Decisions, 2006 to 2009, No. 01/05.10.06 – No. 202/2009.Google Scholar
  31. UK Home Office (2010) Football-Related Arrests Data, 2003–04 to 2009–10. Accessed online:
  32. Wooldridge JM (2002) Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. MIT: Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PeloponneseSpartaGreece
  2. 2.Technological Educational Institute of KalamataKalamataGreece

Personalised recommendations