Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Expression and Function of Cancer-Associated Carbonic Anhydrase IX

  • Jaromir Pastorek
  • Silvia Pastorekova
Part of the Cancer Drug Discovery and Development book series (CDD&D)


Hypoxia and acidosis are typical physiological factors of tumor microenvironment acting in concert to support invasive and metastatic propensity of tumor cells through rearrangement of their gene expression profile and remodeling of their phenotype. Induction of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) has recently been recognized as one of the important molecular events observed in tumor cells exposed to hypoxia. CA IX can serve as a “tag” of hypoxic areas in many tumor types and thereby provides a diagnostic tool as well as a target for selective delivery of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, CA IX actively contributes to pH regulation which protects tumor cells from acidosis and thereby provides a target for anticancer therapy based on reduction of tumor cell survival via inhibition of CA IX enzyme activity. Both aspects attract considerable attention but their full appraisal and further development require deeper understanding of the mechanisms behind CA IX expression and functioning. Here, we summarize and discuss the “state of the art” of CA IX field in context of its relevance for tumor microenvironment.


Renal Cell Carcinoma Renal Cell Carcinoma Extracellular Acidosis Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of VirologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovak Republic

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