Identification of New Candidates as Mucosal Vaccine Adjuvant in TNF Family Cytokines
Preventing infection at the pathogen portal of entry through induction of mucosal immunity is an exciting prospect. Mucosal vaccines administered either orally or nasally are effective in inducing antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and the mucosal compartment. However, the mucosal antigen-specific immune response is weak, because most protein antigens applied mucosally can evoke only a weak immune response. One strategy to overcome the weakness of the immune response is the co-administration of mucosal adjuvant with the vaccine antigen. Unfortunately, the development of a safe and effective mucosal adjuvant has proved challenging. Cytokines are promising adjuvants because they are safe, human-derived materials and display potent immune-modulating functions. Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily are critically involved in maintaining homeostasis of the immune system. We determined the potential of TNF superfamily cytokines as mucosal adjuvants for induction of mucosal immune responses.
KeywordsCholera Toxin Immunize Mouse Mucosal Immunity Mucosal Vaccine Intranasal Immunization
This study was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan, and from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The study was also supported in part by Health Labor Sciences Research Grants from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan; by Health Sciences Research Grants for Research on Publicly Essential Drugs and Medical Devices, from the Japan Health Sciences Foundation.