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Contrast Ultrasound in Imaging Tumor Angiogenesis

Chapter

Abstract

New strategies to detect tumor angiogenesis and monitor response of tumor vasculature to therapy are needed. There are a plethora of anti-angiogenic strategies being evaluated pre-clinically and in the clinical setting; however, a ­significant unmet challenge is following the response of tumors to anti-angiogenic therapy. Herein we review current modalities being investigated for this purpose and highlight the utility of contrast ultrasound imaging using targeted microbubbles (MB). MB are small (1–10 μm) gas-filled intravascular tracers. MB can be targeted via antibodies, peptides or other moieties to virtually any endothelial cell surface marker and thus selectively mark specific vascular beds (e.g., tumor blood vessels). Furthermore targeted MB can be used to non-invasively evaluate the expression level of particular molecular antigens (e.g., CD105, VEGFR2) and monitor the effect of therapy on target expression. We conclude that targeted MB represent a novel and attractive tool for non-invasive, vascular-targeted molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis and for monitoring vascular effects specific to anti-tumor therapy in vivo.

Keywords

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Positron Emission Tomography Tumor Angiogenesis Tumor Vasculature Tumor Blood Vessel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

APN

aminopeptidase N

BV

blood vessels

EC

endothelial cells

FN

fibronectin

MMP

matrix metalloproteinases

PSMA

prostate specific membrane antigen

SMC

smooth muscle cell

TEM

tumor endothelial marker

VEGF:VEGFR

complex of VEGF and its receptor

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Surgical Oncology, Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology, The Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology ResearchUT Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA

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