Biomedical Electrodes For Biopotential Monitoring and Electrostimulation

Part of the Integrated Circuits and Systems book series (ICIR)


Biomedical electrodes are used in various forms in a wide range of biomedical applications including

(i) the detection of bio-electric events such as the electrocardiogram (E.C.G.)

(ii) the application of therapeutic impulses to the body e.g. cardiac pacing and defibrillation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (T.E.N.S.)

(iii) the application of electrical potentials in order to facilitate the transdermal delivery of ionized molecules for local and systemic therapeutic effect (iontophoresis) and

(iv) the a.c. impedance characterization of body tissues.


Stratum Corneum Charge Transfer Resistance Contact Impedance Electrode Design Skin Impedance 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomedical Sensors GroupINSA (National Institute of Applied Science) of LyonVilleurbanne CedexFrance

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