Design and Use of Organic Voltage Sensitive Dyes

  • Leslie M. Loew


The chemistry and the physics of voltage sensitive dyes (VSDs) should be understood and appreciated as a prerequisite for their optimal application to problems in neuroscience. This chapter provides a basic understanding of the properties of the large variety of available organic VSDs. The mechanisms by which the dyes respond to voltage guides the best setup of the optics for recording or imaging electrophysiological activity. The physical and chemical properties of the dyes can be tuned to optimize delivery to and staining of the cells in different experimental preparations. The aim of this chapter is to arm the experimentalists who use the dyes with enough information and data to be able to intelligently choose the best dye for their specific requirements.


Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Second Harmonic Generation Molecular Orbital Calculation Membrane Potential Change Voltage Sensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I am indebted to the many talented chemists, microscopists, and neuroscientists who have collaborated with me and who have carried out much of the research summarized in this chapter. Most notably, I wish to acknowledge my long-term collaborators Larry Cohen, Aaron Lewis, Mei-de Wei, and Joe Wuskell. The more recent work in my lab has benefited from collaborations with Ping Yan and Srdjan Antic. This work was supported by NIH EB001963.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie M. Loew
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology, R. D. Berlin Center for Cell Analysis and ModelingUniversity of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA

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