Second Harmonic Imaging of Membrane Potential
The non-linear optical effect known as second harmonic generation (SHG) has been recognized since the earliest days of the laser. But it has only been in the last few years that it has begun to emerge as a viable microscope imaging contrast mechanism for visualization of cell and tissue structure and function. This is because only small modifications are required to equip a standard laser scanning 2-photon microscope for second harmonic imaging microscopy (SHIM). SHG signals from certain membrane-bound dyes are highly sensitive to membrane potential, indicating that SHIM may become a valuable probe of cell physiology. However, for the current generation of dyes and microscopes, the small signal size limits the number of photons that can be collected during the course of a fast action potential. Better dyes and optimized microscope optics could ultimately lead to the ability to image neuronal electrical activity with SHIM.
KeywordsSecond Harmonic Generation Second Harmonic Generation Signal Styryl Quinolinium Donor Moiety Second Harmonic Generation Intensity
We are indebted to the many talented students and colleagues who have participated in the development of SHG imaging in our laboratories over the last 20 years. This work was supported by NIH EB001963.
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