Advertisement

Metamemory in Schizophrenia: Monitoring or Control Deficit?

  • Marie Izaute
  • Elisabeth Bacon
Chapter

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a common mental disease with a lifetime risk of about 1%. It has been closely linked to a wide range of cognitive deficits. In addition to cognitive deficits, patients with schizophrenia also manifest deficits in awareness of their memory capacity. The study of metamemory permits an experimental approach to metacognition in schizophrenia. Two studies with schizophrenia patients are reported. The first study is on FOK, a metamemory judgment that is expressed at the time of retrieval. The second study examines JOL, which is expressed at the time of learning and allows the studying of the strategic regulation of learning. Thus, the relationship between monitoring and control can be revealed. The findings of the two reported studies showed preservation of the accuracy of prospective metamemory judgments in schizophrenia. The first study demonstrated that the accuracy of FOK, the judgments elicited at the time of retrieval regarding the future recallability of unrecalled items, is preserved in an episodic task. Evidence from the second study indicates that the accuracy of judgments elicited at the time of encoding (i.e., JOLs) is also relatively preserved but the strategic regulation (i.e., control) of study time is impaired in schizophrenia.

Keywords

Schizophrenia Patient Healthy Participant Confidence Judgment Item Repetition Gamma Correlation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Jean-Marie Danion for helpful discussions and Anastasia Efklides for her precious remarks and editorial work. The studies reported in this chapter were supported by CNRS, INSERM, the University Hospital of Strasbourg and the Blaise Pascal University of Clermont-Ferrand. The first study was also supported by a grant of the FondaMental Foundation, foundation of scientific cooperation.

References

  1. Aleman, A., Hijman, R., de Haan, E. H., & Kahn, R. S. (1999). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1358–1366.Google Scholar
  2. Bacon, E., Danion, J. M., Kauffmann-Muller, F., & Bruant, A. (2001). Consciousness in schizophrenia: A metacognitive approach to semantic memory. Consciousness and Cognition, 10, 473–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bacon, E., & Huet, N. (2005). Metamemory knowledge and beliefs in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 349.Google Scholar
  4. Bacon, E., & Izaute, M. (2008). What do patients with schizophrenia know when they cannot remember? Schizophrenia Research, 98, 23–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacon, E., & Izaute, M. (2009). Metacognition in schizophrenia: Processes underlying patients’ reflections on their own episodic memory. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 1031–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bacon, E., Izaute, M., & Danion, J. M. (2007). Preserved memory monitoring but impaired memory control during episodic encoding in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2, 219–227.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, C. A., & Morrison, A. P. (1998). Cognitive processes in auditory hallucinations: Attributional biases and metacognition. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1199–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bazin, N., Perruchet, P., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., & Feline, A. (2000). Context-dependent information processing in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 45, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonner-Jackson, A., Haut, K., Csernansky, J. G., & Barch, D. (2005). The influence of encoding strategy on episodic memory and cortical activity in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 58(1), 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruder, G. E., Wexler, B. E., Sage, M. M., Gil, R. B., & Gorman, J. M. (2004). Verbal memory in schizophrenia: Additional evidence of subtypes having different cognitive deficits. Schizophrenia Research, 68(2–3), 137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryson, G., Whelahan, H. A., & Bell, M. (2001). Memory an executive function impairments in deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 101(1), 247–255.Google Scholar
  12. Burglen, F., Marczewski, P., Mitchell, K. J., van der Linden, M., Johnson, M. K., Danion, J. M., & Salamé, P. (2004). Impaired performance in a working memory binding task in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 125(3), 247–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calev, A. (1984a). Recall and recognition in chronic nondemented schizophrenics: Use of matched tasks. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 172–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calev, A. (1984b). Recall and recognition in mildly disturbed schizophrenics: The use of matched tasks. Psychology and Medicine, 14, 425–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carter, C. S., Barch, D. M., Buchanan, R. W., Bullmore, E., Krystal, J. H., Cohen, J., Geyer, M., Green, M., Nuechterlein, K. H., Robbins, T., Silverstein, S., Smith, E. E., Stauss, M., Wykes, T., & Heinssen, R. (2008). Identifying cognitive mechanisms targeted for treatment development in schizophrenia: An overview of the first meeting of the cognitive neuroscience treatment research to improve cognition in schizophrenia initiative. Biological Psychiatry, 64, 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cartwright-Hatton, S., & Wells, A. (1997). Beliefs about worry and intrusions: The Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire and its correlates. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(3), 279–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christensen, B. K., Girard, T. A., Benjamin, A. S., & Vidailhet, P. (2006). Evidence for impaired mnemonic strategy use among patients with schizophrenia using the part-list cuing paradigm. Schizophrenia Research, 85, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen, J. D., & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1992). Context, cortex, and dopamine: A connectionist approach to behavior and biology in schizophrenia. Psychological Review, 99, 45–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Danion, J. M., Rizzo, L., & Bruant, A. (1999). Functional mechanisms underlying impaired recognition memory and conscious awareness in patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 639–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Danion, J. M., Gokalsing, E., Robert, P., Massin-Krauss, M., & Bacon, E. (2001a). Defective relationship between subjective experience and behavior in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 2064–2066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Danion, J. M., Meulemans, T., Kauffmann-Muller, F., & Vermaat H. (2001b). Intact implicit learning in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry. 158(6), 944–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daprati, E., Franck, N., Georgieff, N., Proust, J., Pacherie, E., Dalery, J., & Jeannerod, M. (1997). Looking for the agent: An investigation into consciousness of action and self-consciousness in schizophrenic patients. Cognition, 65(1), 71–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dickinson, D., Iannone, V. N., Wilk, C. M., & Gold, J. M. (2004). General and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 826–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Driesen, N. R., Leung, H. G., Calhoun, V. D., Constable, R. T., Gueorguieva, R., Hoffman, R., Skudlarski, P., Goldman-Rakic, P. S., & Krystal, J. H. (2008). Impairment of working memory maintenance and response in schizophrenia: Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence. Biological Psychiatry, 64(12), 1026–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunlosky, J, Cavallini, E., Roth, H., McGuire, C. L., Vecchi, T., & Hertzog, C. (2007). Do self-monitoring interventions improve older adult learning? The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. Psychological sciences and social sciences, 62, 70–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Efklides, A. (2006). Metacognition and affect: What can metacognitive experiences tell us about the learning process? Educational Research Review, 1, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: Defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13(4), 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ferrand, L., & Alario, F. X. (1998). Normes d’association verbales pour 366 noms d’objets concrets [Verbal association norms for 366 concrete objects]. L’Année Psychologique, 9, 659–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fioravanti, M., Carlone, O., Vitale, B., Cinti, M. E., & Clare, L. (2005). A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychological Review, 15(2), 73–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flavell, J. H. (1971). First discussent’s comments: What is memory development the development of? Human development, 14, 272–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flavell, J. (1979). Metacognitive and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fujii, D. E., Wylie, A. M., & Nathan, J. H. (2004). Neurocognition and long-term prediction of quality of life in outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness. Schizophrenia Research, 69(1), 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frith, C. D. (1989). The neural basis of hallucinations and delusions. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 328(2), 169–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frith, C. D. (1992). The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  35. Goodman, L. A., & Kruskal, W. H. (1954). Measures of association for cross-classifications. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49, 732–764.Google Scholar
  36. Gras-Vincendon, A., Danion, J. M., Grange, D., Bilik, M., Willard-Schroeder, D., Sichel, J. P., & Singer, L. (1994). Explicit memory, repetition priming and cognitive skill learning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 13, 117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Green, M. F. (1996). What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 321–330.Google Scholar
  38. Heinrichs, W. R., & Zakzanis, K. K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Huron, C., & Danion, J. M. (2002). Impairment of constructive memory in schizophrenia. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 127–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huron, C., Danion, J. M., Giacomoni, F., Grangé, D., Robert, P., & Rizzo, L. (1995). Impairment of recognition memory with, but not without, conscious recollection in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1737–1742.Google Scholar
  41. Kircher, T. T. J., Koch, K., & Stottmeister, F. (2007). Metacognition and reflexivity in patients with schizophrenia. Psychopathology, 40, 254–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Knoblich, G., Stottmeister, F., & Kircher, T. (2004). Self-monitoring in patients with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 34, 1561–1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Koh, S. D., Kayton, L., & Berry, R. (1973). Mnemonic organization in young nonpsychotic schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81, 299–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Koh, S. D., & Peterson, R. A. (1978). Encoding orientation and the remembering of schizophrenic young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 303–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Koren, D., Seidman, L. J., Goldsmith, M., & Harvey, P. D. (2006). Real-world cognitive and metacognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: A new approach for measuring (and remediating) more “right stuff”. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32(2), 310–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Koren, D., Seidman, L. J., Poyurovsky, M., Goldsmith, M., Viksman, P., Zichel, S., & Klein, E. (2004). The neuropsychological basis of insight in first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot metacognitive study. Schizoprenia Research, 70, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Koriat, A. (1993). How do we know that we know? The accessibility model of the feeling of knowing. Psychological Review, 100, 609–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Koriat, A. (1995). Dissociating knowing and the feeling of knowing: Further evidence for the accessibility model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124(3), 311–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Koriat, A. (1997). Monitoring one’s knowledge during study: A cue utilization approach to judgments of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 126, 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koriat, A., & Goldsmith, M. (1996). Monitoring and control processes in the strategic regulation of memory accuracy. Psychological Review, 103(3), 490–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Koriat, A., Levy-Sadot, R., Edry, E., & De Marcas, S. (2003). What do we know about what we cannot remember? Accessing the semantic attributes of words that cannot be recalled. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 6, 1095–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kraus, M. S., & Keefe, R. S. (2007). Cognition as an outcome measure in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 50 (Supplement), 46–51.Google Scholar
  53. Laroi, F., & Van der Linden, M. (2005). Metacognitions in proneness towards hallucinations and delusions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1425–1441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lewis, R. (2004). Should cognitive deficit be a diagnostic criterion for schizophrenia? Journal of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 29, 102–113.Google Scholar
  55. Liddle, P. F., & Morris, D. L. (1991). Schizophrenic symptoms and frontal lobe performance. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 340–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lobban, F., Haddock, G., Kinderman, P., & Wells, A. (2002). The role of metacognitive beliefs in auditory hallucinations. Personality and Individual Differnces, 32, 1351–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lysaker, P. H., Carcione, A., Dimaggio, G., Johannesen, J. K., Nicolò, G., Procacc, M., & Semerari, A. (2005). Metacognition amidst narratives of self and illness in schizophrenia: Associations with neurocognition, symptoms, insight and quality of life. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112, 64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Medalia, A., Dorn, H., & Watras-Gans, S.W. (2000). Treating probem-solving deficits on an acute care psychiatric inpatient unit. Psychiatry Research, 97(1), 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Metcalfe, J., & Shimamura, A. P. (1994). Metacognition: Knowing about knowing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  60. Mohamed, S., Rosenheck, R., Swartz, M., Stroup, S., Lieberman, J. A., & Keefe, R. S. E. (2008). Relationship of cognition and psychopathology to functional impairment in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 978–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morice, R. (1990). Cognitive inflexibility and pre-frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia and mania. British Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 50–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Morrison, A. P., Haddock, G., & Tarrier, N. (1995). Intrusive thoughts and auditory hallucinations: A cognitive approach. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moritz, S., & Woodward, T. S. (2006). The contribution of metamemory deficits to schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moritz, S., Woodward, T. S., & Rodriguez-Raecke, R. (2006). Patients with schizophrenia do not produce more false memories than controls but are more confident in them. Psychological Medicine, 36(5), 659–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moritz, S., Woodward, T. S., & Ruff, C. C. (2003). Source monitoring and memory confidence in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 33, 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moritz, S., Woodward, T. S., Withman, C., & Cuttler, C. (2005). Confidence in errors as a possible basis for delusions in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moulin, C. J. A., Perfect, T. J., & Jones, R. W. (2000a). The effects of repetition on allocation of study time and judgements of learning in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 38, 748–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nelson, T. O. (1984). A comparison of current measures of the accuracy of feeling-of-knowing predictions. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 109–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nelson, T. O. (1993). Judgments of learning and the allocation of study time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 269–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nelson, T. O. (1996). Consciousness and metacognition. American Psychologist, 51, 102–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nelson, T. O., & Dunlosky, J. (1991). When people’s judgments of learning (JOLs) are extremely accurate at predicting subsequent recall: The “delayed-JOL effect”. Psychological Science, 2, 267–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nelson, T. O., Dunlosky, J., Graf, A., & Narens, L. (1994). Utilization of metacognitive judgments in the allocation of study time during multitrial learning. Psychological Science, 5, 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1990). Metamemory: A theoretical framework and new findings. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 25, 125–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Nelson, T. O., Stuart, R. B., Howard, C., & Crowley, M. (1999). Metacognition and clinical psychology: A preliminary framework for research and practice. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 6, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Osatuke, K., Ciesla, J., Kasckow, J. W., Zisook, S., & Mohamed, S. (2008). Insight in schizophrenia: A review of etiological models and supporting research. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49(1), 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ranganath, C., Minzenberg, M. J., & Ragland, D. J. (2008). The cognitive neuroscience of memory function and dysfunction in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 64, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rizzo, L., Danion, J. M., Van der Linden, M., & Grangé, D. (1996). Patients with schizophrenia remember that an event has occurred, but not when. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 427–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schwartz, B. L., Rosse, R. B., & Deutsch, S. I. (1993). Limits of the processing view in accounting for dissociations among memory measures in a clinical population. Memory and Cognition, 21, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Son, L. K., & Metcalfe, J. (2000). Metacognitive and control strategies in study-time allocation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 204–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Souchay, C., Bacon, E., & Danion, J. M. (2006). Metamemory in schizophrenia: An exploration of the feeling-of-knowing state. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28(5), 828–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sponheim, S. R., Steele, V. R., & McGuire, K. A. (2004). Verbal memory processes in schizophrenia patients and biological relatives of schizophrenia patients: Intact implicit memory, impaired explicit recollection. Schizophrenia Research, 71(2–3), 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thoma, P., Hennecke, M., Mandok, T., Wähner, A., Brüne, M., Juckel, G., & Daum, I. (2009). Proverb comprehension impairments in schizophrenia are related to executive dysfunction. Psychiatry Research, 170(2–3), 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Traupmann, K. L. (1975). Effects of categorization and imagery on recognition and recall by process and reactive schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology, 26, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Waters, F. A., Maybery, M. T., Badcock, J. C., & Michie, P. T. (2004). Context memory and binding in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 68(2–3), 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social and Cognitive Psychology Laboratory (LAPSCO UMR CNRS 6024)Clermont University, Blaise Pascal UniversityClermont-FerrandFrance

Personalised recommendations