Advertisement

Fringe Consciousness: A Useful Framework for Clarifying the Nature of Experience-Based Metacognitive Feelings

  • Elisabeth Norman
  • Mark C. Price
  • Simon C. Duff
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses how inconsistencies in Koriat’s treatment of experience-based metacognitive feelings can be resolved by the integration of ideas and methods from research on fringe consciousness. Experience-based metacognitive feelings are claimed to reflect properties of ongoing cognitive activity, in contrast to information-based metacognitive judgements which are claimed to reflect the content of one’s knowledge. However the empirical examples taken to support the lack of influence of knowledge content are problematic. It is also unclear what the criterion is for defining retrieved knowledge as implicit or explicit. We suggest that theoretical assumptions and empirical examples from research on the overlapping concept of fringe consciousness can help resolve such inconsistencies. The fringe consciousness framework states that metacognitive feelings can be shaped by implicit knowledge content and provides examples of how the implicitness of such knowledge can be measured. We point to some theoretical and empirical implications of a closer integration between these two frameworks.

Keywords

Knowledge Content Implicit Learning Partial Knowledge Explicit Content Context Accessibility 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was partly supported by a postdoctoral grant (911274) to the first author from the Western Norway Regional Health Authority (Helse Vest).

References

  1. Baars, B. J. (1988). A cognitive theory of consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baars, B. J. (1993). Putting the focus on the fringe: Three empirical cases. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 126–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, A. R. (1999). Beyond the fringe: William James on the transitional parts of the stream of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, 141–153.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, A. S. (1991). A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 204–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dienes, Z., & Scott, R. (2005). Measuring unconscious knowledge: Distinguishing structural knowledge and judgment knowledge. Psychological Research, 69, 338–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dienes, Z., Altmann, G. T. M., Kwan, L., & Goode, A. (1995). Unconscious knowledge of artificial grammars is applied strategically. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 1322–1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Efklides, A. (2001). Metacognitive experiences in problem solving: Metacognition, motivation, and self-regulation. In A. Efklides, J. Kuhl, & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research (pp. 297–323). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  8. Efklides, A. (2006). Metacognition and affect: What can metacognitive experiences tell us about the learning process? Educational Research Review, 1, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: Defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13, 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galin, D. (1993). Beyond the fringe. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hart, J. T. (1965). Memory and the feeling-of-knowing experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 56, 208–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koriat, A. (1993). How do we know that we know? The accessibility model of the feeling of knowing. Psychological Review, 100, 609–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Koriat, A. (1995). Dissociating knowing and the feeling of knowing: Further evidence for the accessibility model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124, 311–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koriat, A. (2000). The feeling of knowing: Some metatheoretical implications for consciousness and control. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 149–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koriat, A. (2007). Metacognition and consciousness. In P. D. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch, & E. Thompson (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of consciousness (pp. 289–325). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koriat, A., & Levy-Sadot, R. (1999). Processes underlying metacognitive judgements: Information-based and experience-based monitoring of one’s own knowledge. In Y. Trope & S. Chaiken (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 483–502). New York: Guildford.Google Scholar
  19. Koriat, A., & Levy-Sadot, R. (2000). Conscious and unconscious metacognition: A rejoinder. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koriat, A., & Levy-Sadot, R. (2001). The combined contributions of the cue-familiarity and accessibility heuristics to feelings of knowing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 34–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Koriat, A., Levy-Sadot, R., Edry, E., & de Marcas, S. (2003). What do we know about what we cannot remember? Assessing the semantic attributes of words that cannot be retrieved. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 1095–1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mangan, B. (1993a). Some philosophical and empirical implications of the fringe. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 142–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mangan, B. (1993b). Taking phenomenology seriously: The “fringe” and its implications for cognitive research. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 89–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mangan, B. (2001). Sensation’s ghost: The non-sensory “fringe” of consciousness. Psyche, 7. Retrieved April 28, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v7/psyche-7-18-mangan.html.
  25. Mangan, B. (2003). The conscious “fringe”: Bringing William James up to date. In B. J. Baars, W. P. Banks, & J. B. Newman (Eds.), Essential sources in the scientific study of consciousness (pp. 741–759). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. May, J. (2004). An information processing view on fringe consciousness. Psyche, 10, 1–9. Retrieved April 28, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/symposia/mangan/pdf/may.pdf
  27. McGovern, K. (1993). Feelings in the fringe. Consciousness and Cognition, 2, 119–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Metcalfe, J. (2000). Metamemory: Theory and data. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of memory (pp. 197–211). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Nelson, T. O. (2001). Psychology of metamemory. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (Vol. 14, pp. 9733–9738). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nelson, T. O., & Dunlosky, J. (1991). When people’s judgments of learning (JOLs) are extremely accurate at predicting subsequent recall: The “delayed-JOL effect”. Psychological Science, 2, 267–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Norman, E. (2002). Subcategories of “fringe consciousness” and their related nonconscious contexts. Psyche, 8, 1–15. Retrieved April 28, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v8/psyche-8-15-norman.html
  33. Norman, E., Price, M. C., Duff, S. C., & Mentzoni, R. A. (2007). Gradations of awareness in a modified sequence learning task. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 809–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Norman, E., Price, M. C., Blakstad, O., Johnsen, Ø., & Martinsen, S. K. (2009). Measuring the relationship between feeling-of-knowing metamemory judgements and partial knowledge. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  35. Price, M. C. (2002). Measuring the fringes of experience. Psyche, 8, 1–24. Retrieved April 28, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v8/psyche-8-16-price.html.
  36. Price, M. C., & Norman, E. (2008). Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness: Are they conscious and does it matter? Judgment and Decision Making, 3, 28–41.Google Scholar
  37. Price, M. C., & Norman, E. (2009). Cognitive feelings. In P. Wilken, T. Bayne, & A. Cleeremans (Eds.), Oxford companion to consciousness (pp. 141–144). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Reder, L. M., & Ritter, F. E. (1992). What determines initial feeling of knowing? Familiarity with question terms, not with the answer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 435–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schwartz, B. L. (2002). Tip-of-the-tongue states: Phenomenology, mechanism, and lexical retrieval. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  40. Scott, R. B., & Dienes, Z. (2008). The conscious, the unconscious, and familiarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1264–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith, S. M. (1994). Frustrated feelings of imminent recall: On the tip of the tongue. In J. Metcalfe & A. P. Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing about knowing (pp. 27–45). Cambridge, MA: Bradford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabeth Norman
    • 1
  • Mark C. Price
  • Simon C. Duff
  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of Bergen and Haukeland University HospitalBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations