University Teachers Engaged in Critical Self-Regulation: How May They Influence Their Students?

  • Kathryn Bartimote-Aufflick
  • Angela Brew
  • Mary Ainley


We outline a new model for teacher learning, critical self-regulation (CSR). CSR is an aspirational model for the reflective processes that can underpin continuing professional development of university teachers. We propose a four-phase model of CSR that draws on the student learning literatures of metacognition and self-regulated learning (SRL), and critical reflection from adult education. To Zimmerman’s three-phase model of SRL, we add a prior stage that includes teachers’ reflection on the basic premises of their instruction and consideration of higher-order instructional goals. At the appraisal end of the process, the evaluation phase of SRL is extended to incorporate critical (or premise) reflection. We argue that critical reflection provides a qualitatively different and a deeper reflection than the reflection referred to in existing metacognition and SRL models. Following the presentation of the model of CSR, situations and tools for developing CSR are considered. We focus on learning that arises because of the perceived need by the teacher to address some learning or teaching dilemma.


Goal Orientation Critical Reflection Teacher Learning Metacognitive Knowledge Cognitive Apprenticeship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This chapter draws on a presentation given at the EARLI Metacognition SIG Conference in Ioannina, Greece (Bartimote-Aufflick & Brew, 2008).

Thanks to the reviewer for the feedback, and to Anastasia Efklides for helpful comments on the draft.

Kathryn Bartimote-Aufflick is Lecturer at the Institute for Teaching and Learning, the University of Sydney, Australia. Angela Brew is Professorial Fellow at the Learning and Teaching Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Mary Ainley is Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology, the University of Melbourne, Australia.


  1. Baker, L., & Cerro, L. C. (2000). Assessing metacognition in children and adults. In G. Schraw & J. C. Impara (Eds.), Issues in the measurement of metacognition (pp. 99–145). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  3. Barrie, S. C. (2007). A conceptual framework for the teaching and learning of generic graduate attributes. Studies in Higher Education, 32, 439–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartimote-Aufflick, K., & Brew, A. (2008, May). University teachers’ understanding of their own learning, 3rd Meeting of EARLI SIG 16: Metacognition. Ioannina, Greece.Google Scholar
  5. Bartimote-Aufflick, K., & Smith, L. (2008, July). Developing as academics through participation in learning communities, Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) Conference. Rotorua, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  6. Blumenfeld, P. C., Soloway, E., Marx, R. W., Krajcik, J. S., Guzdial, M., & Palincsar, A. (1991). Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the learning. Educational Psychologist, 26, 369–398.Google Scholar
  7. Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005). Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 199–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boud, D. (1995). Enhancing learning through self assessment. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  9. Boud, D. (2000). Sustainable assessment: Rethinking assessment for the learning society. Studies in Continuing Education, 22, 151–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boud, D., Keogh, R., & Walker, D. (1985). What is reflection in learning? In D. Boud, R. Keogh, & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: Turning experience into learning (pp. 7–17). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  11. Brew, A. (2006). Research and teaching: Beyond the divide. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology (pp. 77–165). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, A. L. (1994). The advancement of learning. Educational Researcher, 23, 4–12.Google Scholar
  14. Butler, D. L., Novak Lauscher, H., Jarvis-Selinger, S., & Beckingham, B. (2004). Collaboration and self-regulation in teachers’ professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 435–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cornford, I. R. (2002). Learning-to-learn strategies as a basis for effective lifelong learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 21, 357–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corno, L. (2001). Volitional aspects of self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 179–212). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Cranton, P., & Wright, B. (2008). The transformative educator as learning companion. Journal of Transformative Education, 6, 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dean, D., & Kuhn, D. (2007). Direct instruction vs. discovery: The long view. Science Education, 91, 384–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Efklides, A. (2006). Metacognition and affect: What can metacognitive experiences tell us about the learning process? Educational Research Review, 1, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: Defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13, 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1996). The expert learner: Strategic, self-regulated, and reflective. Instructional Science, 24, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gordon, S. C., Dembo, M. H., & Hocevar, D. (2007). Do teachers’ own learning behaviors influence their classroom goal orientation and control ideology? Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hoy, W. K. (2001). The pupil control studies. A historical, theoretical and empirical analysis. Journal of Educational Administration, 39, 424–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hutchings, P., & Shulman, L. S. (1999). The scholarship of teaching: New elaborations, new developments. Change, 31, 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kramarski, B. (2008). Promoting teachers’ algebraic reasoning and self-regulation with metacognitive guidance. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kreber, C. (2000). Becoming an expert university teacher: A self-directed process. In H. B. Long (Ed.), Practice and theory in self-directed learning (pp. 131–142). Schaumburg, IL: Motorola University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kreber, C. (2004). An analysis of two models of reflection and their implications for educational development. International Journal for Academic Development, 9, 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kreber, C. (2005a). Charting a critical course on the scholarship of university teaching movement. Studies in Higher Education, 30, 389–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kreber, C. (2005b). Reflection on teaching and the scholarship of teaching: Focus on science instructors. Higher Education, 50, 323–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kreber, C., & Cranton, P. A. (2000). Exploring the scholarship of teaching. Journal of Higher Education, 71, 476–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lin, X., Schwartz, D. L., & Hatano, G. (2005). Toward teachers’ adaptive metacognition. Educational Psychologist, 40, 245–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Malmberg, L.-E. (2008). Student teachers’ achievement goal orientations during teacher studies: Antecedents, correlates and outcomes. Learning and Instruction, 18, 438–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marsick, V., & Mezirow, J. (2002). New work on transformative learning, ID Number: 10876, Teachers College Record:
  36. Masui, C., & De Corte, E. (2005). Learning to reflect and to attribute constructively as basic components of self-regulated learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 351–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McAlpine, L., Berdugo Oviedo, G., & Emrick, A. (2008). Telling the second half of the story: Linking academic development to student experience of learning. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33, 661–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McAlpine, L., Weston, C., & Beauchamp, C. (2002). Debriefing interview and colloquium: How effective are these as research strategies? Instructional Science, 30, 403–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McAlpine, L., Weston, C., Berthiaume, D., Fairbank-Roch, G., & Owen, M. (2004). Reflection on teaching: Types and goals of reflection. Educational Research and Evaluation, 10, 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mezirow, J. (1990). Preface. In J. Mezirow (Ed.), Fostering critical reflection in adulthood (pp. xiii–xxi). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  41. Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  42. Ozmon, H., & Craver, S. (1990). Philosophical foundations of education (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Paris, S. G. (2002). When is metacognition helpful, debilitating, or benign? In P. Chambres, M. Izaute, & P.-J. Marescaux (Eds.), Metacognition: Process, function and use (pp. 105–120). Boston: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paris, S. G., & Cunningham, A. (1996). Children becoming students. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 117–147). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  45. Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36, 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451–502). San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into Practice, 41, 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Postareff, L., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2008). Variation in teachers’ description of teaching: Broadening the understanding of teaching in higher education. Learning and Instruction, 18, 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Powers, W. T. (1973). Behavior: The control of perception. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  50. Prosser, M., & Trigwell, K. (2006). Confrimatory factor analysis of the approaches to teaching inventory. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 405–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Randi, J. (2004). Teachers as self-regulated learners. Teachers College Record, 106, 1825–1853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Randi, J., & Corno, L. (2000). Teacher innovations in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 651–686). San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Salomon, G., Globerson, T., & Guterman, E. (1989). The computer as a zone of proximal development: Internalizing reading-related metacognitions from a reading partner. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 620–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Samuels, M., & Betts, J. (2007). Crossing the threshold from description to deconstruction and reconstruction: Using self-assessment to deepen reflection. Reflective Practice, 8, 269–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schön, D. A. (1995). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action (New ed.). Aldershot, UK: Arena, Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. Schunk, D. H., & Ertmer, P. A. (2000). Self-regulation and academic learning: Self-efficacy enhancing interventions. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 631–650). San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15, 4–14.Google Scholar
  58. Sinatra, G. M., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of intentions in conceptual change learning. In G. M. Sinatra & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Intentional conceptual change (pp. 1–18). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  59. Tillema, H. H., & Kremer-Hayon, L. (2002). “Practising what we preach” – Teacher educators’ dilemmas in promoting self-regulated learning: A cross case comparison. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 593–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., & Ginns, P. (2005). Phenomenographic pedagogy and a revised approaches to teaching inventory. Higher Education Research and Development, 24, 349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., & Waterhouse, F. (1999). Relations between teachers’ approaches to teaching and students’ approaches to learning. Higher Education, 37, 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Van Eekelen, I. M., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Vermunt, J. D. (2005). Self-regulation in higher education teacher learning. Higher Education, 50, 447–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Original work published 1930).Google Scholar
  64. Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Weiner, B. (2000). Intrapersonal and interpersonal theories of motivation from an attributional perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 12, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Weston, C. B., & McAlpine, L. (2001). Making explicit the development toward the scholarship of teaching and learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 86, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zamorski, B. (2002). Research-led teaching and learning in higher education: A case. Teaching in Higher Education, 7, 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–40). San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Sociocultural influence and students’ development of academic self-regulation: A social-cognitive perspective. In D. M. McInerney & S. Van Etten (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning: Vol. 4. Big theories revisited. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  70. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 166–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1997). Developmental phases in self-regulation: Shifting from process goals to outcome goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (1999). Acquiring writing revision skill: Shifting from process to outcome self-regulatory goals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 241–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zohar, A. (2004). Elements of teachers’ pedagogical knowledge regarding instruction of higher order thinking. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 15, 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zohar, A. (2006). The nature and development of teachers’ metastrategic knowledge in the context of teaching higher order thinking. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15, 331–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zohar, A., & Ben David, A. (2008). Explicit teaching of meta-strategic knowledge in authentic classroom situations. Metacognition and Learning, 3, 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathryn Bartimote-Aufflick
    • 1
  • Angela Brew
  • Mary Ainley
  1. 1.Institute for Teaching and LearningUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations