Self-Confidence and Academic Achievements in Primary-School Children: Their Relationships and Links to Parental Bonds, Intelligence, Age, and Gender

  • Sabina Kleitman
  • Tanya Moscrop


The construct of metacognition is well-established in psychology and education disciplines, yet much is still unknown. One method receiving well-deserved popularity is by using confidence ratings assigned immediately after a cognitive act to study regulative aspects of metacognition. Prior research has demonstrated evidence of the stable and reliable construct of self-confidence in adults. However, no studies examined the existence of self-confidence among primary school children and its predictive validity within a school environment. In this chapter we present the results of a study that examined the existence of self-confidence in children aged 9–12 years (N = 183). The students also completed a brief-current form of the Parental Bonding Instrument to gauge their perceptions of the level of parental care and overprotection, within the parent-child relationship. Standardised school grades and fluid intelligence scores were also collected. The results from this study demonstrated the existence of self-confidence in primary school children and determined its importance for school achievement, irrespective of a student’s cognitive ability, age and gender. The results also suggest that parental care has an important influence on both school achievement and levels of confidence.


Academic Achievement Maternal Care Confidence Rating Accuracy Score Parental Overprotection 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia

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