Grief is a normal reaction to the loss of someone close. Grief reactions range from intense emotional responses involving sadness, longing, guilt, and anger with significant functional disruption lasting several months to the transitory, situational experience of sadness with little or no functional disruption that endures only for the first few weeks after the loss (e.g., Bonanno and Kaltman, 1999). Normal grief may be accompanied by acute somatic, depressive, and post-traumatic stress symptoms, or no appreciable distress or dysfunction (see Bonanno, 2004; Bonanno and Kaltman, 1999; Bonanno et al., 2002; Coifman et al., 2007; Parker and McNally, 2008). However, when they do occur, symptoms of normal grief typically remit within 6 months of the loss (Prigerson et al., 1997), though individuals may report intense sadness when reminded of their loss throughout their lifetime.


Major Depressive Disorder Suicidal Ideation Exposure Therapy Caregiver Strain Complicated Grief 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nevada-RenoRenoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterNational Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (116-B2) BostonBostonUSA

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