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Chemical Sensors

Abstract

Sensors for measuring and detecting chemical substances are pervasively employed yet are, for the most part, unobtrusive. They are used to help run our cars more efficiently, track down criminals, and monitor our environment and health. Examples of uses include monitoring of oxygen in automobile exhaust systems, glucose levels in samples from diabetics, and carbon dioxide in the environment. In the laboratory, chemical detectors are the heart of key pieces of analytical equipment employed in the development of new chemicals and drugs and to monitor industrial processes. Progress has been impressive, and the literature is full of interesting developments. Recent developments include a broad spectrum of technologies, including improved screening systems for security applications [1] and miniaturization of systems once only used in laboratories [2]. Chemical sensors respond to stimuli produced by various chemicals or chemical reactions. These sensors are intended for identification and quantification of chemical species (including both liquid and gaseous phases).

Keywords

  • Chemical Sensor
  • Electrochemical Sensor
  • Electronic Nose
  • Wheatstone Bridge
  • Acoustic Sensor

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This chapter is written in collaboration with Prof. Todd E. Mlsna (Mississippi State University,tmlsna@chemistry.msstate.edu) and Dr. Sanjay V. Patel (Seacoast Science, Inc., sanjay@seacoastscience.com).

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Resistive temperature sensor having negative temperature coefficient (NTC) – see Chap. 16.

  2. 2.

    Vernier Mini Gas Chromatograph (www.vernier.com/probes/gc-mini.html).

  3. 3.

    An electrometer is an instrument for measuring very small electric charges, currents, or electrical potential differences. It is characterized by very low leakage currents, down to 1 fA.

  4. 4.

    The electron volt (eV) is a unit of energy. By definition, it is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gained by a single unbound electron when it accelerates through an electrostatic potential difference of 1 V. One eV is equal to 1.60217653 × 10−19 J.

  5. 5.

    See the subsection Thermal Sensors above.

  6. 6.

    U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. www.nist.gov

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Fraden, J. (2010). Chemical Sensors. In: Handbook of Modern Sensors. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6466-3_17

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