Advertisement

Pressure Sensors

  • Jacob Fraden
Chapter

Abstract

The concept of pressure was primarily based on the pioneering work of Evangelista Torricelli who for a short time was a student of Galileo [1]. During his experiments with mercury filled dishes, in 1643, he realized that the atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth. Another great experimenter Blaise Pascal, in 1647, conducted an experiment with the help of his brother-in-law, Perier, on the top of the mountain Puy de Dome and at its base. He observed that pressure exerted on the column of mercury depends on elevation. He named a mercury-in-vacuum instrument they used in the experiment the barometer. In 1660, Robert Boyle stated his famous relationship: “The product of the measures of pressure and volume is constant for a given mass of air at fixed temperature.” In 1738, Daniel Bernoulli developed an impact theory of gas pressure to the point where Boyle’s law could be deducted analytically. Bernoulli also anticipated the Charles–Gay-Lussac law by stating that pressure is increased by heating gas at a constant volume. For a detailed description of gas and fluid dynamics, a reader should be referred to one of the many books on the fundamentals of physics. Below, we briefly summarize the basics, which are essential for understanding design and use of pressure sensors.

Keywords

Pressure Sensor Heated Plate Wheatstone Bridge Capacitive Sensor Capacitive Pressure Sensor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Benedict RP (1984) Fundamentals of temperature, pressure, and flow measurements, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Plandtl L (1952) Essentials of fluid dynamics. Hafner, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neubert HKP (1975) Instrument transducers. An introduction to their performance and design, 2nd edn. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clark SK, Wise KD (1979) Pressure sensitivity in anisotropically etched thin-diaphragm pressure sensor. IEEE Trans Electron Devices ED-26:1887–1896ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tufte ON, Chapman PW, Long D (1962) Silicon diffused-element piezoresistive diaphragm. J Appl Phys 33:3322–3327ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kurtz AD, Gravel CL (1967) Semiconductor transducers using transverse and shear piezoresistance. In: Proc. 22nd ISA conf., No. P4-1 PHYMMID-67, Sept.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tanigawa H, Ishihara T, Hirata M, Suzuki K (1985) MOS integrated silicon pressure sensor. IEEE Trans Electron Devices ED-32(7):1191–1195ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petersen K, Barth P, Poydock J, Brown J, Mallon J Jr, Bryzek J (1988) Silicon fusion bonding for pressure sensors. In: Rec. proc. IEEE solid-state sensor actuator workshop, pp 144–147Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Proud R (1991) VRP transducers for low-pressure measurement. Sensors, Feb 1991, pp 20–22Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wolthuis RA, Mitchell GL, Saaski E, Hratl JC, Afromowitz MA (1991) Development of medical pressure and temperature sensors employing optical spectral modulation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 38(10):974–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hälg B (1991) A silicon pressure sensor with an interferometric optical readout. In: Transducers’91. International conference on solid-state sensors and actuators. Digest of Technical Papers, pp 682–684, IEEE, 1991Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vaughan JM (1989) The Fabry–Perot interferometers. Bristol, Adam HilgerGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saaski EW, Hartl JC, Mitchell GL (1989) A fiber optic sensing system based on spectral modulation. Paper #86-2803, ©ISAGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Von Smoluchovski M (1911) Ann Physik 35:983ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fraden J (2009) Detector of low levels of gas pressure and flow. US Patent 7,490,512, 17 FebGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kermode AC (2006) Mechanics of flight. In: Barnard RH, Philpott DR (eds) 11th edn. Prentice Hall, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buckley OE (1916) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2:683ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leck JH (1957) Pressure measurement in vacuum systems. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 70–74Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bayard RT, Alpert D (1950) Rev Sci Instrum 21:571ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fremery JK (1946) Vacuum 32:685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang Y et al (2001) An ultra-sensitive, high-vacuum absolute capacitive pressure sensor. In: 14th IEEE international conference on micro electro mechanical systems (Cat. No. 01CH37090), Technical Digest, pp 166–169.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goehner R, Drubetsky E, Brady HM, Bayles WH Jr (2000) Vacuum measurement. In: Webster J (ed) Mechanical variables measurement. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Di Giovanni M (1982) Flat and corrugated diaphragm design handbook. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations