High-Performance Multiprocessor System on Chip: Trends in Chip Architecture for the Mass Market
The proliferation of embedded processors in recent years is astonishing. The most obvious example is mobile phones, with annual sales of over a billion units. Such volumes clearly form a “mass market,” but other businesses also involve huge unit processor volumes as well. These include microcontrollers, enterprise (e.g., disk drive controllers), home entertainment (HDTV), automotive, and more. Historically, most of these have been single processor systems, or collections of single processor subsystems, rather than true multiprocessor systems, and as such are not of direct relevance to the topic of this book, but the same trends that are driving the move to multiprocessing in other domains are at work in these mass markets as well. To see why, let us look in more detail at the example of a mobile phone.
KeywordsMultiprocessor System Mass Market Consumer Expectation Instruction Level Parallelism Power Gating
- S. Adve and K. Gharachorloo, “Shared Memory Consistency Models, A Tutorial”. IEEE Computer, Vol. 29, No. 12, pp. 66–76, Dec. 1996.Google Scholar
- K. Bernstein et al., “High-performance CMOS variability in the 65-nm regime and beyond”, IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 50, pp. 433–449, July 2006.Google Scholar
- M. Bohr, “The New Era of Scaling in an SoC World”, Proc. Int. Solid State Circuits Conf., pp. 22–28, Feb. 2009.Google Scholar
- M. Breuer and H. Zhu, “An Illustrated Methodology for Analysis of Error Tolerance”, IEEE Design and Test of Computers, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 168–177, March-April 2008.Google Scholar
- D. Bull et al., “A Power-Efficient 32b ARM ISA Processor Using Timing-Error Detection and Correction for Transient-Error Tolerance and Adaptation to PVT Variation”, Proc. Int. Solid State Circuits Conf., pp. 284–286, Feb. 2010.Google Scholar
- J. Goodacre, “The Design Dilemma: Multiprocessing using Multiprocessors and Multithreading”, Design and Reuse Forum, 2006.Google Scholar
- Y. Huai, “Spin-Transfer Torque MRAM (STT-MRAM): Challenges and Prospects”, AAPPS Bulletin, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 34–40, Dec. 2008.Google Scholar
- M. Keating et al., “Low Power Methodology Manual”, Springer 2007.Google Scholar
- D. Patterson and J. Hennesy, “Computer Organization and Design, The Hardware/Software Interface, Fourth Edition”, Elsevier 2009.Google Scholar
- Texas Instruments, OMAP™ 4 mobile applications platform,http://focus.ti.com/lit/ml/swpt034/swpt034.pdf downloaded Oct. 11 2010.
- J. Wawrzynek et al., “High-End Reconfigurable Computing”, Berkeley Wireless Reseasrch Center Retreat, Jan. 2004.Google Scholar