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Metalloproteases and Proteolytic Processing

  • Anthony J. Turner
  • Natalia N. Nalivaeva
Chapter
Part of the Protein Reviews book series (PRON, volume 13)

Abstract

Proteolytic enzymes constitute around 2% of the human genome and are involved in all stages of cell and organism development from fertilization through to cell death. In the human genome the major classes of peptidases are represented by cysteine-, serine- and metalloenzymes, which possess a wide spectrum of substrate specificity and physiological functions. The identification of many novel peptidases from genome sequencing programmes has suggested potential new therapeutic targets. In addition, several well characterised peptidases were recently shown to possess new and unexpected biological roles in neuroinflammation, cancer and angiogenesis, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegeneration. This chapter will briefly characterize the main classes of metallopeptidases and their roles in health and disease. Particular attention will be paid to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), neprilysin (NEP) and adamalysin (ADAM) families of proteases and their pathophysiological roles with a particular emphasis on cancer and neurodegeneration. The roles and mechanisms of protein shedding which primarily involve the ADAMs family of metallopeptidases will be explained using amyloid protein precursor (APP) processing cascades as a well characterized example. The therapeutic significance of modulating (activating or inhibiting) metallopeptidase activity will be a particular focus of this chapter.

Keywords

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Amyloid Precursor Protein Prion Protein Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Amyloid β-peptide

ACE

Angiotensin converting enzyme

AICD

APP intracellular domain

APP

Amyloid precursor protein

ECE

Endothelin-converting enzyme

IDE

Insulysin (insulin-degrading enzyme)

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

PAI

Plasminogen-activator inhibitor

RAS

Renin-angiotensin system

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Medical Research Council of Great Britain and Russian Academy of Sciences Programme “Fundamental Sciences to Medicine” for financial support.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Molecular and Cellular BiologyUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and BiochemistryRASSt.PetersburgRussia

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