Cardiac Oxygen Consumption and Hemodynamics

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
  • Mark I. M. Noble


It was shown by Sarnoff et al. [1] that the production of pressure costs much more oxygen than the production of flow or Cardiac Output (see Fig. 16.1). Also, it has been shown that oxygen consumption, VO 2 , is almost proportional to Heart Rate. These findings imply that the main mechanical variables to estimate cardiac oxygen consumption are pressure and Heart Rate. If oxygen consumption is expressed per beat, pressure remains as major determinant.


Oxygen Consumption Ventricular Pressure Rate Pressure Product Subendocardial Layer Diastolic Aortic Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Sarnoff SJ, Braunwald E, Welch GH, Case RB, Stainsby WN, Macruz R. Hemodynamic ­determinants of oxygen consumption of the heart with special relevance to the tension-time index. Am J Physiol 1958;192:148–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Suga H. Ventricular energetics. Physiol Rev 1990;70:247–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rooke GA, Feigl EO. Work as a correlate of canine left ventricular oxygen consumption, and the problem of catecholamine oxygen wasting. Circ Res 1982;50:273–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    van Beek JH, van Mil HG, King RB, de Kanter FJ, Alders DJ, & Bussemaker J. A (13)C NMR double-labeling method to quantitate local myocardial O(2) consumption using frozen tissue samples. Am J Physiol 1999;277:H1630–H1640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alders DJ, Groeneveld AB, de Kanter FJ, van Beek JH. Myocardial O2 consumption in ­porcine left ventricle is heterogeneously distributed in parallel to heterogeneous O2 delivery. Am J Physiol 2004;287:H1353–H1361.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer US 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolaas Westerhof
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Stergiopulos
    • 2
  • Mark I. M. Noble
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and Pulmonology ICaR-VUVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamthe Netherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of Hemodynamics and Cardiovascular TechnologySwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Cardiovascular MedicineAberdeen UniversityAberdeenScotland

Personalised recommendations