When an external load is applied to a material, deformation occurs. The concept of “rigid body,” while very useful in a wide range of structural and dynamic engineering applications, is never a true representation of actual materials. This non-rigidity of material gives rise to a dimensional change (strain) in response to the outside mechanical stimulation. If instead it is the dimensional change that is prescribed, then a mechanical stress will be generated in the material. The relationship between stress and strain determines the constitutive response of a material. The simplest form of stress–strain relationship is linear elastic, where the state of strain can be directly obtained from a known state of stress (and vice versa) through a set of elastic constants. More complex behavior such as plastic and time-dependent deformation frequently occurs, depending on the combination of materials, geometry, and loading conditions.
KeywordsSolder Joint Dimensional Change Deformation Analysis Drop Impact Silicon Oxide Thin Film
- 3.S. Sedky (2006) Post-processing techniques for integrated MEMS, Artech House, Boston.Google Scholar
- 5.S. Sedky, P. Fiorini, A. Witvrouw and K. Baert (2002) “Sputtered tantalum as a structural material for surface micromachined RF switches,” in R. P. Manginell, J. T. Borenstein, L. P. Lee and P. J. Hesketh: BioMEMS and Bionanotechnology, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, vol. 729, pp. 89–94, Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA.Google Scholar
- 6.S. Natarajan, M. Armstrong, M. Bost et al. (2008) “A 32 nm logic technology featuring 2nd-generation high-k + metal gate transistors, enhanced channel strain and 0.171 mm SRAM cell size in a 291 Mb array,” in Proceedings of 2008 International Electron Devices Meeting, IEEE.Google Scholar
- 8.A. Farris, J. Pan, A. Liddicoat, B. J. Toleno, D. Maslyk, D. Shangguan, J. Bath, D. Willie and D. A. Geiger (2008) “Drop test reliability of lead-free chip scale packages,” in Proceedings of 2008 Electronic Components and Technology Conference, IEEE, pp. 1173–1180.Google Scholar
- 9.K. C. R. Abell and Y.-L. Shen (2002) “Deformation induced phase rearrangement in near eutectic tin-lead alloy,” Acta Mater, vol. 50, pp. 3191–3202.Google Scholar