Parent Training for the Treatment of Oppositional Behavior in Young Children: Helping the Noncompliant Child

  • Robert J. McMahon
  • Nicholas Long
  • Rex L. Forehand
Chapter

Abstract

Noncompliance (i.e., excessive disobedience to adults) is consistently reported to be the most prevalent behavior problem for clinic-referred and non-referred “normal” children alike, and is currently viewed as a keystone behavior in the development and maintenance of conduct disorders. “Helping the Noncompliant Child” (HNC) (Forehand & McMahon, 1981; McMahon & Forehand, 2003) is based on a parent training program originally developed by Hanf at the University of Oregon Medical School in the late 1960s (e.g., Hanf & Kling, 1973) to treat noncompliance in young (3–8 years of age) children with a range of developmental disabilities (see Reitman & McMahon, 2010). While several independent groups of clinical researchers have adapted Hanf’s original program, the adaptation by the current authors (Forehand & McMahon, 1981; McMahon & Forehand, 2003) is one of the most formally operationalized and evaluated versions of this approach to working with young children with conduct problems. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a description of the theoretical assumptions that underlie HNC, an overview of the program, and a summary of its empirical support. We also provide a description of a typical HNC case, and conclude with remarks concerning future directions.

Keywords

Depression Beach Keystone 

References2

  1. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarado, R., Kendall, K., Beesley, S., & Lee-Cavaness, C. (2000). Strengthening America’s families: Model family programs for substance abuse and delinquency prevention. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah.Google Scholar
  4. Baum, C. G., & Forehand, R. (1981). Long-term follow-up assessment of parent training by use of multiple-outcome measures. Behavior Therapy, 12, 643–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baum, C. G., Reyna-McGlone, C. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (1986, November). The efficacy of behavioral parent training: Behavioral parent training plus clinical self-control training, and a modified STEP program with children referred for noncompliance.. Chicago, IL: Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory manual (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  8. Becker, W. C. (1960). The relationship of factors in parental ratings of self and each other to the behavior of kindergarten children as rated by mothers, fathers, and teachers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 24, 507–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breiner, J. L. (1989). Training parents as change agents for their developmentally disabled children. In C. E. Schaefer & J. M. Briesmeister (Eds.), Handbook of parent training: Parents as co-therapists for children’s behavior problems (pp. 269–304). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Breiner, J. L., & Forehand, R. (1981). An assessment of the effects of parent training on clinic-referred children’s school behavior. Behavioral Assessment, 3, 31–42.Google Scholar
  11. Breiner, J., Forehand, R. (1982, November). Training groups of parents in the management of their developmentally and language delayed children. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  12. Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5, 272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 180–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brody, G., & Forehand, R. (1985). The efficacy of parent training with maritally distressed and non-distressed mothers: A multimethod assessment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 291–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chamberlain, P., & Patterson, G. R. (1995). Discipline and child compliance in parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Applied and practical parenting) (pp, Vol. 4, pp. 205–225). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1992). A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorders: The FAST Track program. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 509–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Conners, N. A., Edwards, M. C., & Grant, A. S. (2007). An evaluation of a parenting class curriculum for parents of young children: Parenting the Strong-Willed Child. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cowen, E. L., Huser, J., Beach, D. R., & Rappaport, J. (1970). Parental perceptions of young children and their relation to indexes of adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cross Calvert, S., & McMahon, R. J. (1987). The treatment acceptability of a behavioral parent training program and its components. Behavior Therapy, 18, 165–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dinkmeyer, D., & McKay, G. D. (1976). Systematic training for effective parenting. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  20. Dumas, J. E. (1996). Why was this child referred? Interactional correlates of referral status in families of children with disruptive behavior problems. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 106–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., & Boggs, S. R. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children with disruptive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 215–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Farrington, D. P. (2003). Key results from the first forty years of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In T. P. Thornberry & M. D. Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies (pp. 137–183). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forehand, R., Armistead, L., Neighbors, B., & Klein, K. (1994). Parent training for the noncompliant child: A guide for training therapists. Charlotte, VT: ChildFocus.Google Scholar
  24. *Forehand, R., Breiner, J., McMahon, R. J., & Davies, G. (1981). Predictors of cross setting behavior change in the treatment of child problems. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 12, 311–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Forehand, R., Cheney, T., & Yoder, P. (1974). Parent behavior training: Effects on the non-compliance of a deaf child. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 5, 281–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Forehand, R., Furey, W., & McMahon, R. J. (1984). The role of maternal distress in a parent training program to modify child noncompliance. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 12, 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. *Forehand, R., Griest, D. L., & Wells, K. C. (1979). Parent behavioral training: An analysis of the relationship among multiple outcome measures. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 229–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Forehand, R., Griest, D. L., Wells, K., & McMahon, R. J. (1982). Side effects of parent counseling on marital satisfaction. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 104–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. *Forehand, R., & King, H. E. (1974). Pre-school children’s non-compliance: Effects of short-term behavior therapy. Journal of Community Psychology, 2, 42–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. *Forehand, R., & King, H. E. (1977). Noncompliant children: Effects of parent training on behavior and attitude change. Behavior Modification, 1, 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Forehand, R., & Long, N. (1988). Outpatient treatment of the acting out child: Procedures, long term follow-up data and clinical problems. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10, 129–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forehand, R., & Long, N. (2010). Parenting the strong-willed child: The clinically-proven five-week program for parents of two- to six-year-olds (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  33. Forehand, R. L., & McMahon, R. J. (1981). Helping the noncompliant child: A clinician’s guide to parent training. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  34. *Forehand, R., Rogers, T., McMahon, R. J., Wells, K. C., & Griest, D. L. (1981). Teaching parents to modify child behavior problems: An examination of some follow-up data. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 6, 313–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. *Forehand, R., Steffe, M., Furey, W. M., & Walley, P. M. (1983). Mothers’ evaluation of a parent training program completed three and one-half years earlier. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 14, 339–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Forehand, R., Sturgis, E. T., McMahon, R. J., Aguar, D., Green, K., Wells, K., et al. (1979). Parent behavioral training to modify child noncompliance: Treatment generalization across time and from home to school. Behavior Modification, 3, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Forehand, R., Wells, K. C., & Griest, D. L. (1980). An examination of the social validity of a parent training program. Behavior Therapy, 11, 488–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Furey, W. M., & Basili, L. A. (1988). Predicting consumer satisfaction in parent training for noncompliant children. Behavior Therapy, 19, 555–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C., & Bumbarger, B. (1999). Preventing mental disorders in school-age children: A review of the effectiveness of prevention programs. Report to the Center for Mental Health Services; Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [Available at http://www.prevention.psu.edu/CMHS.html]
  40. Griest, D. L., Forehand, R., Rogers, T., Breiner, J. L., Furey, W., & Williams, C. A. (1982). Effects of parent enhancement therapy on the treatment outcome and generalization of a parent training program. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20, 429–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Griest, D. L., Forehand, R., & Wells, K. C. (1981). Follow-up assessment of parent behavioral training: An analysis of who will participate. Child Study Journal, 11, 221–229.Google Scholar
  42. Hanf, C., & Kling, J. (1973). Facilitating parent-child interactions: A two-stage training model. Unpublished manuscript. University of Oregon Medical School.Google Scholar
  43. Humphreys, L., Forehand, R., McMahon, R. J., & Roberts, M. (1978). Parent behavioral training to modify child noncompliance: Effects on untreated siblings. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 9, 235–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kimmel, D. C., & VanderVeen, F. (1974). Factors of marital adjustment in Locke’s Marital Adjustment Test. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 36, 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kratzer, L., & Hodgins, S. (1997). Adult outcomes of child conduct problems: A cohort study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 65–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kumpfer, K. L., & DeMarsh, J. (1987). Prevention services for children of substance-abusing parents. National Institute on Drug Abuse Final Technical Report. (R18 DA 02758-01/02 and DA 03888-01).Google Scholar
  47. Kumpfer, K. L., Molgaard, V., & Spoth, R. (1996). The Strengthening Families Program for the prevention of delinquency and drug use. In R.DeV. Peters & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (pp. 241–267). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  48. Long, N., & Forehand, R. (2000a). Parenting the Strong-willed child: Leader’s guide for the six-week parenting class. (Request from Dr. Nicholas Long, UAMS Department of Pediatrics, Slot 512-21, 1 Children’s Way, Little Rock, AR 72202).Google Scholar
  49. Long, N., & Forehand, R. (2000b). Modifications of a parental training program for implementation beyond the clinical setting. In N. N. Singh, J. P. Leung, & A. N. Singh (Eds.), International perspectives on child and adolescent mental health (pp. 293–310). New York: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Long, P., Forehand, R., Wierson, M., & Morgan, A. (1994). Moving into adulthood: Does parent training with young noncompliant children have long-term effects? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 101–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Long, N., Rickert, V., & Ashcraft, E. (1993). Bibliotherapy as an adjunct to stimulant medication in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7, 82–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lutzker, J. R. (1984). Project 12-Ways: Treating child abuse and neglect from an ecobehavioral perspective. In R. F. Dangel & R. A. Polster (Eds.), Parent training: Foundations of research and practice (pp. 260–297). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  53. Maughan, D. R., Christiansen, E., Jenson, W. R., Olympia, D., & Clark, E. (2005). Behavioral parent training as a treatment for externalizing behaviors and disruptive behavior disorders: A meta-analysis. School Psychology Review, 34, 267–286.Google Scholar
  54. McMahon R. J. (2006). Parent training interventions for preschool-age children. In R.E. Tremblay, R.G. Barr, & R.DeV. Peters (Eds.), Encyclopedia on early childhood development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; 1–8. Available at http://www.excellence-earlychildhood.ca/documents/McMahonRJANGxp.pdf
  55. *McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. (1978). Nonprescription behavior therapy: Effectiveness of a brochure in teaching mothers to correct their children’s inappropriate mealtime behavior. Behavior Therapy, 9, 814–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (2003). Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  57. McMahon, R. J., Forehand, R., & Griest, D. L. (1981). Effects of knowledge of social learning principles on enhancing treatment outcome and generalization in a parent training program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 526–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McMahon, R. J., Forehand, R., Griest, D. L., & Wells, K. C. (1981). Who drops out of treatment during parent behavioral training? Behavioral Counseling Quarterly, 1, 79–85.Google Scholar
  59. McMahon, R.J., Forehand, R., & Tiedemann, G.L. (1985, November). Relative effectiveness of a parent training program with children of different ages. Poster presented at the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Houston.Google Scholar
  60. *McMahon, R.J., Johnson, K.K., & Robbins, K.H. (2010). Acceptability of written instructions versus therapist administration of a parent training program. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  61. *McMahon, R.J., & Lehman, K. (2010). Effectiveness of written instructions in teaching mothers to give clear instructions to their children. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  62. McMahon, R. J., Slough, N. M., & the Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1996). Family-based intervention in the Fast Track program. In R.Dev. Peters & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Preventing childhood disorders, substance abuse, and delinquency (pp. 90–110). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  63. McMahon, R. J., Tiedemann, G. L., Forehand, R., & Griest, D. L. (1984). Parental satisfaction with parent training to modify child noncompliance. Behavior Therapy, 15, 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McMahon, R. J., Wells, K. C., & Kotler, J. S. (2006). Conduct problems. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders (3rd ed., pp. 137–268). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  65. Metzler, C., Eddy, M., & Taylor, T. K. (2002, May). The evidence standards of ten “best practices” lists and the evidence base of the top family-focused programs. In C. Metzler (Chair), Finding common ground amongbest practiceslists: The evidence base and program elements of top family focused and school-based programs. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Society for Prevention Research, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  66. Miller, G. E., & Prinz, R. J. (1990). Enhancement of social learning family interventions for childhood conduct disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 291–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). “Adolescence-limited” and “life-course-persistent” antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  69. Patterson, G. R., Capaldi, D., & Bank, L. (1991). An early starter model for predicting delinquency. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 139–168). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  70. Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. S. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  71. Peed, S., Roberts, M., & Forehand, R. (1977). Evaluation of the effectiveness of a standardized parent training program in altering the interactions of mothers and their noncompliant children. Behavior Modification, 1, 323–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pisterman, S., McGrath, P., Firestone, P., Goodman, J. T., Webster, I., & Mallory, R. (1989). Outcome of parent-mediated treatment of preschoolers with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 628–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Porter, B., & O’Leary, K. D. (1980). Marital discord and childhood behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 287–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reid, J. B. (1993). Prevention of conduct disorder before and after school entry: Relating interventions to developmental findings. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 243–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reitman, D., & McMahon, R. J. (2010). Constance “Connie” Hanf: The mentor and the model. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  76. *Roberts, M. W., Joe, V. C., & Rowe-Hallbert, A. L. (1992). Oppositional child behavior and parental locus of control. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 170–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rogers, T. R., Forehand, R., Griest, D. L., Wells, K. C., & McMahon, R. J. (1981). Socioeconomic status: Effects on parent and child behaviors and treatment outcome of parent training. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 10, 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Russo, D. C., Cataldo, M. F., & Cushing, P. J. (1981). Compliance training and behavioral covariation in the treatment of multiple behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, l4, 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Saunders, B. E., Berliner, L., & Hanson, R. F. (2001). Guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of intrafamilial child physical and sexual abuse (Final draft report: July 30, 2001). Charleston, SC: Authors. [Available at http://www.musc.edu/cvc/]
  80. Webster-Stratton, C., & Taylor, T. (2001). Nipping early risk factors in the bud: Preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0–8 years). Prevention Science, 2, 165–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wells, K. C. (2003). Adaptations for special populations. In R. J. McMahon & R. L. Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior (2nd ed., pp. 182–200). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  82. Wells, K. C., & Egan, J. (1988). Social learning and systems family therapy for childhood oppositional disorder: Comparative treatment outcome. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 29, l38–l46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wells, K. C., Forehand, R., & Griest, D. L. (1980). Generality of treatment effects from treated to untreated behaviors resulting from a parent training program. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 9, 217–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wells, K. C., Griest, D. L., & Forehand, R. (1980). The use of a self-control package to enhance temporal generality of a parent training program. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 347–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wells, K. C., Pelham, W. E., Kotkin, R. A., Hoza, B., Abikoff, H. B., Abramowitz, A., et al. (2000). Psychosocial treatment strategies in the MTA study: Rationale, methods, and critical issues in design and implementation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 483–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wolfe, D. A., Edwards, B., Manion, I., & Koverola, C. (1988). Early intervention for parents at risk of child abuse and neglect: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 40–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. McMahon
    • 1
  • Nicholas Long
    • 2
  • Rex L. Forehand
    • 3
  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.University of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  3. 3.University of VermontBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations