Advertisement

Case Finding and Screening

  • Huijun Li
  • Melissa Pearrow
  • Shane R. Jimerson
Chapter
Part of the Developmental Psychopathology at School book series (DPS)

Abstract

As discussed in Chapters 1 and 2, the early onset form of schizophrenia (EOS) is rare with a prevalence rate of approximately one in 10,000; however, schizophrenia occurs in approximately 1% of the adult population, and in about one third of cases, individuals begin experiencing psychotic symptoms in adolescence (Findling & Schulz, 2005; Kodish & McClellan, 2008). Schizophrenia is often preceded by subclinical symptoms and adjustment problems with a gradual deterioration in functioning over a period of months or years (Walker, Kestler, Hochman, & Bollini, 2005). More specifically, adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia demonstrate increased social withdrawal, anxiety, academic difficulties, and thought problems that frequently begin in adolescence (Findling & Schulz, 2005). This suggests that school psychologists and other school-based mental health professionals are on the front line to identify and intervene for students who currently have or who are at risk of developing schizophrenia in the early stages of functional decline.

Keywords

Psychotic Disorder Early Warning Sign Prodromal Symptom Clinical High Risk Prodromal Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Addington, J., Cadenhead, K.S., Cannon, T.D., Cornblatt, C., McGlashan, T., Perkins, D.O., & Heinssen, R. (2007). North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study: A collaborative multisite approach to prodromal schizophrenia research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 665–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amminger, G.P., Leicester, S., Francey, S., & McGorry, P.D. (2005). The prodromal course. In R.L. Findling & S.C. Schulz (Eds.), Juvenile Onset Schizophrenia: Assessment, Neurobiology, and Treatment. (pp. 199–219). Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  3. Birchwood, M., Spencer, E., & McGovern, D. (2000). Schizophrenia: Early warning signs. Advances in Psychiatry Treatment, 6, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cannon, T.D., Cadenhead, K., Cornblatt, B., Woods, S.W., Addington, J., Walker, E., & Heinssen, R. (2008). Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk: A multisite longitudinal study in North America. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cornblatt, B., Lencz, T., & Kane, J.M. (2001). Treatment of schizophrenia prodrome: Is it presently ethical? Schizophrenia Research, 51, 31–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cornblatt, B., Lencz, T., & Obuchowski, M. (2002). The schizophrenia prodrome: Treatment and high risk perspective. Schizophrenia Research, 54, 177–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Downing, D., & Spring, E. (2007). Community collaboration helps to target early detection and intervention for psychosis. National Council Magazine, 3, 32–33.Google Scholar
  8. Eastvold, A.D., Heaton, R.K., & Cadenhead, K.S. (2007). Neurocognitive deficits in the (putative) prodrome and first episode of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 266–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Findling, R.L., & Schulz, S.C. (2005). Juvenile-Onset Schizophrenia: Assessment, Neurobiology, and Treatment. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  10. Frazier, F.A., McClellan, J., Findling, R.L., Vitiello, B., Anderson, R., Zablotsky, B., et al. (2007). Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS): Demographic and clinical characteristics. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 979–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fuller, R., Nopoulos, P., Arndt, S., O’Leary, D., Ho, B.C., & Andreasen, N.C., (2002). Longitudinal assessment of premorbid cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia through examination of standardized scholastic test performance. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1183–1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hafner, H., & Maurer, K. (2006). Early detection of schizophrenia: Current evidence and future perspectives. World Psychiatry, 5, 130–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hafner, H., Maurer, K., Trendler, G., an der Heiden, W., Schmidt, M., & Konnecke, R. (2005). Schizophrenia and depression: Challenging the paradigm of two separate diseases–a controlled study of schizophrenia, depression, and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research, 77, 11–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heinimaa, M., Salokangas, R., Ristkari, T., Plathin, M., Huttunen, J., & Ilonen, T., et al. (2003). PROD-screen–a screen for prodromal symptoms of psychosis. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12, 92–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ho, B., Andreasen, N., Nopoulos, P., Fuller, R., Arndt, S., & Cadoret, R.J. (2005). Secondary prevention of schizophrenia: Utility of standardized scholastic tests for early identification. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 17, 11–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Klosterkotter, J., Hellmich, M., Steinmeyer, E.M., & Schultze-Lutter, F. (2001). Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodrome phase. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 158–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Larsen, T.K., Friis, S., Haahr, U., Joa, I., Johannessen, J.O., Melle, I., & Vaglum, P (2001). Early detection and intervention in first-episode schizophrenia: A critical review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 103, 323–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee, F., McGlashan, T.H., & Woods, S.W. (2005). Prevention of schizophrenia: Can it be achieved? CNS Drugs, 19, 193–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lieberman, J.A., Perkins, D., Belger, A., Chakos, M., Jarskog, F., Boteva, K., & Gilmore, J. (2001). The early stages of schizophrenia: Speculations on pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approaches. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 884–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Loewy, R.L. & Cannon, T.D. (2008). The Prodromal Questionnaire- Brief Version (PQ-B). University of California.Google Scholar
  21. McGorry, P.D., McFarlane, C., Patton, G.C., Bell, R., Hibbert, M.E., Jackson, H.J., & Bowes, G. (1995). The prevalence of prodromal features of schizophrenia in adolescence: A preliminary survey. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92, 241–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller, T.J., McGlashan, T.H., Rosen, J.L., Cadenhead, K., Ventura, J., McFarlane, W., & Woods, S.W. (2003). Prodromal assessment with the Structure Interview for Prodromal Symptoms: Predictive validity, interrater reliability, and training to reliability. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 703–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Myles-Worsley, M., Blailes, F., Ord, L.M., Weaver, S., Dever, G., & Faraone, S.V. (2007). The Palau Early Psychosis Study: Distribution of cases by level of genetic risk. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 144B, 5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Olsen, K.A., & Rosenbaum, B. (2006). Prospective investigations of the prodromal state of schizophrenia: Assessment instruments. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113, 273–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ord, L.M., Myles-Worsley, M., Blailes, F., & Ngiralmau, H. (2004). Screening for prodromal adolescents in an isolated high risk population. Schizophrenia Research, 71, 507–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Phillips, L.J., McGorry, P.D., Yung, A.R., McGlashan, T.H., Cornblatt, B., & Klosterkotter, J. (2005). Prepsychotic phase of schizophrenia and related disorders: Recent progress and future opportunities. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187 (suppl. 48), s33–s44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Poulton, R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Cannon, M., Murray, R., & Harrington, H. (2000). Children’s self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: A 15-year longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 1053–1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schultze-Lutter, F., Ruhrmann, S., Picker, H., & Klosterkotter, J. (2006). The schizophrenia proneness instrument (SPI-A)—a tool for the assessment of basic symptoms. European Psychiatry, 21 (suppl. 1), s27.Google Scholar
  29. Schultze-Lutter, F., Ruhrmann, S., Picker, H., & von Reventlow, H.G. (2007). Basic symptoms in early psychotic and depressive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, s31–s37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vollmer-Larsen, A., Handest, P., & Parnas, J. (2007). Reliability of measuring anomalous experience: The Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. Psychopathology, 40, 345–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Walker, E.F., Kestler, L.P., Hochman, K.M., & Bollini, A.M. (2005). Development during childhood and adolescence: The manifestations of impending schizophrenia. In R.L. Findling & S.C. Schulz (Eds.), Juvenile Onset Schizophrenia: Assessment, Neurobiology, and Treatment. (pp. 174–198). Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Welham, J., Isohanni, M., Jones, P., & McGrath, (2009). The antecedents of schizophrenia: A review of birth cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 603–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wolwer, W., Buchkremer, G., Hafner, H., Klosterkotter, J., Maier, W., Moller, J, & Gaebel, W. (2003). German research network on schizophrenia: Bridging the gap between research and care. European Archive of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 253, 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yung, A.R., Killackey, E., Hetrick, S.E., Parker, A.G., Schultze-Lutter, F., Klosterkoetter, J., & McGorry, P.D. (2007). The prevention of schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 19, 633–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yung, A.R., & McGorry, P.D. (1996). The initial prodrome in psychosis: Descriptive and qualitative aspects. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 30, 587–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yung, A.R., Phillips, L., Simons, J., Ward, J., Thompson, K., French, P., & McGorry, P. (2006). Comprehensive assessment of at risk mental states (CAARMS). Melbourne: PACE Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  37. Yung, A.R., Yuen, H.P., McGorry, P.D., Phillips, L.J., Kelly, D., & Dell’Olio, M., et al. (2005). Mapping the onset of psychosis: the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 964–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huijun Li
    • 1
  • Melissa Pearrow
    • 2
  • Shane R. Jimerson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Public PsychiatryCommonwealth Research Center Harvard Medical School Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Counseling and School PsychologyUniversity of MassachusettsBostonUSA
  3. 3.Gevirtz Graduate School of Education Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations