Attachment Research: Contributions of Social Workers

  • Joanna E. Bettmann
  • Rachael A. Jasperson
Part of the Essential Clinical Social Work Series book series (ECSWS)


Attachment theory and research have created exciting new ways for clinical social workers to bridge understanding of human development and clinical work, particularly in the area of early relational experiences that influence personality development and disrupt healthy psychological development (Bowlby, 1947). Early social work interest in attachment theory focused on understanding the influence of the mother–child relationship on the child’s overall emotional and psychological development, with particular interest on foster home placements, traumatic ­separations from parents, and child neglect and abuse. In the 1970s, attachment theorists generally began to integrate a clinical approach, and around this time attachment articles began to appear in the social work literature (McMillen, 1992). Shortly thereafter, social work scholars also began to design, implement, and publish attachment-focused research, including research related to adult attachment.


Foster Care Attachment Style Attachment Theory Attachment Relationship Adult Attachment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting Stress Index/Short Form. Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index: Professional manual (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M. (1992). Child behavior checklist for ages 4–18. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M. (2001). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18 and 2000 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  5. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Akers, R. L. (2000). Criminological theories: Introduction and evaluation (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, J. P., & Land, D. (1999). Attachment in adolescents. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: theory, research and clinical applications(pp. 319–335). New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  9. Andersson, G. (1984). Barn på barnhem (Small children in a children’s home). Unpublished Doctoral, Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund.Google Scholar
  10. Andersson, G. (1988). En uppföljning av barn som skilts från sina föräldrar (A follow-up of children separated from their parents). Lund: School of Social Work, Lund University.Google Scholar
  11. Andersson, G. (1999a). Children in residential and foster care – a Swedish example. International Journal of Social Welfare, 8(4), 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Andersson, G. (1999b). Skolsituationen för barn i familjehem (The school situation for children in foster care). Socionomen, 8, 19–29.Google Scholar
  13. Andersson, G. (2005). Family relations, adjustment and well-being in a longitudinal study of children in care. Child & Family Social Work, 10(1), 43–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Andersson, P., & Eisemann, M. (2004). Parental rearing and substance related disorders – A multi-factorial controlled study in a Swedish sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 11(6), 392–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Armsden, G. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), 427–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1993). Manual for the Beck Hopelessness Scale. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  18. Beck, A., Steer, R., & Brown, G. (1987). Beck Depression Inventory. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  19. Behar, L. B. (1977). The preschool behavior questionnaire. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5(3), 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Behar, L., & Stringfield, S. (1974). A behavior rating scale for the preschool child. Developmental Psychology, 10(5), 601–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ben-Ari, A. (2004). Sources of social support and attachment styles among Israeli Arab students. International Social Work, 47(2), 187–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ben-Ari, A., & Lavee, Y. (2005). Dyadic characteristics of individual attributes: Attachment, neuroticism, and their relation to marital quality and closeness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(4), 621–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Benda, B. B. (2002). Religion and violent offenders in boot camp: A structural equation model. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39(1), 91–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Benda, B. B. (2003). Discriminators of suicide thoughts and attempts among homeless veterans who abuse substances. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 33(4), 430–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Benda, B. B., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). The effect of abuse in childhood and in adolescence on violence among adolescents. Youth & Society, 33(3), 339–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Benda, B. B., & Toombs, N. J. (2002). Two preeminent theoretical models: A proportional hazard rate analysis of recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 30(3), 217–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bennett, S. (2001). Two mothers and their child: A multimethod study of parenting bonds and division of labor within lesbian adoptive families. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 62, 1582–1582.Google Scholar
  28. Bernstein, D. P., & Fink, L. (1998). Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A retrospective self-report questionnaire and manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  29. Bettmann, J. (2006). Shifts in attachment relationships: A quantitative study of adolescents in brief residential treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 66(9-A), 3458.Google Scholar
  30. Bond, S. B., & Bond, M. (2004). Attachment styles and violence within couples. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(12), 857–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bowlby, J. (1947). The study of human relations in the child guidance clinic. Journal of Social Issues, 3, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  33. Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Development Psychology, 28, 759–773. Retrieved from
  34. Bretherton, I., Ridgeway, D., & Cassidy, J. (1990). Assessing the internal working models of the attachment relationship: An attachment story completion task for 3-yearolds. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 273–308). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  35. Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988). Symptomatology associated with childhood sexual victimization in a nonclinical adult sample. Child Abuse & Neglect , 12, 51–59.Google Scholar
  36. Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1989). The Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC-33): Early data on a new scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 4, 151–163.Google Scholar
  37. Burge, S., & Figley, C. (1982). The social support scale. Unpublished manuscript, Purdue University.Google Scholar
  38. Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  39. Buttell, F., Muldoon, J., & Carney, M. (2005). An application of attachment theory to court-mandated batterers. Journal of Family Violence, 20(4), 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Caldwell, B., & Bradley, R. (1984). Home observation for the measurement of the environment. Little Rock, AK: University of Arkansas.Google Scholar
  41. Carlson, K. A. (1981). A modern personality test for offenders: The Carlson Psychological Survey. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 8(2), 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Carney, M. M., & Buttell, F. P. (2005). Exploring the relevance of attachment theory as a dependent variable in the treatment of women mandated into treatment for domestic violence offenses. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 41(4), 33–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chang, A. C. (2007). Perceived attachment security and psychological adjustment in recently adopted pre-adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 67(12-A), 4700.Google Scholar
  44. Chassler, L. (1997). Understanding anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa from an attachment perspective. Clinical Social Work Journal, 25(4), 407–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cicirelli, V. G. (1995). A measure of caregiving daughters’ attachment to elderly mothers. Journal of Family Psychology, 9(1), 89–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cohen, O., & Finzi-Dottan, R. (2005). Parent-child relationships during the divorce process: From attachment theory and intergenerational perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 27(1), 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cole, S. A. (2005a). Foster caregiver motivation and infant attachment: How do reasons for ­fostering affect relationships? Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 22(5), 441–457.Google Scholar
  48. Cole, S. A. (2005b). Infants in foster care: Relational and environmental factors affecting ­attachment. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 23(1), 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Corvo, K. (2006). Violence, separation, and loss in the families of origin of domestically violent men. Journal of Family Violence, 21(2), 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. A. (1988). Who does what when partners become parents: Implications for men, women, and marriage. Marriage & Family Review, 12(3), 105–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cowan, C. P., & Cowan, P. A. (1990). Who does what? In J. Touliatos, B. Permutter, & M. Straus (Eds.), Handbook of family measurement techniques (pp. 447–448). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. (1987). The provisions of social relationships and adaptation to stress. In W. H. Jones & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 1, pp. 37–68). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  53. Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. De Gangi, G., Poisson, S., Sickel, R., & Wiener, A. S. (1995). Infant Toddler Symptom Checklist. Tuscon, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders, the Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  55. Derogatis, L. R. (1977). The SCL-90 manual F: scoring, administration & procedures for the SCL-90. Baltimore: John Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Clinical Psychometrics Unit.Google Scholar
  56. Derogatis, L. R. (1992). SCL–90–R: Administration, scoring & procedures manual–II. Towson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.Google Scholar
  57. Derogatis, L. R. (1994). Symptom Checklist-90-R: Administration, scoring and procedure manual for the revised version of the SCL-90a. Minneapolis, MN.: National Computer Systems.Google Scholar
  58. Dibble, E., & Cohen, D. J. (1974). Companion instruments for measuring children’s competence and parental style. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30(6), 805–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (1986). Support Functions Scale: Reliability and validity. Asheville, NC: Winterberry Press.Google Scholar
  61. Elliot, D., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug abuse. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  62. Ellison, C. W. (1983). Spiritual well-being: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 11(4), 330–340.Google Scholar
  63. Epstein, S. (1983). The mother–father–peer scale. Unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  64. Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  65. Eysenck, S. B., Eysenck, H. J., & Barrett, P. (1985). A revised version of the Psychoticism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 6(1), 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Falsetti, S. A. (1997). A review of the modified PTSD symptom scale. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Traumatic Stress Studies, Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  67. Falsetti, S. A., Resnick, H. S., Resick, P. A., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (1993). The modified PTSD symptom scale: A brief self–report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapist, 16, 161–162.Google Scholar
  68. Fenney, J. A., Noller, P., & Hanrahan, M. (1994). Assessing adult attachment. In M. B. Sperling & W. H. Berman (Eds.), Attachment in adults (pp. 128–152). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  69. Finzi, R., Cohen, O., & Ram, A. (2000). Attachment and divorce. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 11(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Finzi, R., Har-Even, D., Weizman, A., Tyano, S., & Shnit, D. (1996). The adaptation of the Attachment Styles Questionnaire for latency-aged children. Psychologia: Israel Journal of Psychology, 5(2), 167–177.Google Scholar
  71. Finzi, R., Ram, A., Har-Even, D., Shnit, D., & Weizman, A. (2001). Attachment styles and ­aggression in physically abused and neglected children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(6), 769–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Finzi-Dottan, R., Cohen, O., Iwaniec, D., Sapir, Y., & Weizman, A. (2006). The child in the family of a drug-using father: Attachment styles and family characteristics. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1), 89–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Finzi-Dottan, R., Manor, I., & Tyano, S. (2006). ADHD, temperament, and parental style as predictors of the child’s attachment patterns. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 37(2), 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Florian, V., & Drory, Y. (1990). Mental Health Inventory (MHI) – Psychometric properties and ­normative data in the Israeli population. Psychologia: Israel Journal of Psychology, 2(1), 26–35.Google Scholar
  75. Fowers, B. J., & Olson, D. H. (1993). ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale: A brief research and clinical tool. Journal of Family Psychology, 7(2), 176–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 350–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Griffm, D. W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). The metaphysics of measurement: The case of adult attachment. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships: Vol. 5. Attachment processes in adulthood (pp. 17–52). London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  78. Hahm, H. C., Lahiff, M., & Guterman, N. B. (2003). Acculturation and parental attachment in Asian-American adolescents’ alcohol use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33(2), 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hamama-Raz, Y., & Solomon, Z. (2006). Psychological adjustment of aelanoma survivors: The contribution of hardiness, attachment, and cognitive appraisal. Journal of Individual Differences, 27(3), 172–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hare, B. R. (1996). The HARE General and Area-Specific (School, Peer and Home) Self-Esteem Scale. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Handbook of tests and measures for Black populations (Vol. 2, pp. 199–206). Hampton, VA: Cobb & Henry Publishers.Google Scholar
  81. Harris, K. M., Halpern, C. T., Entzel, P., Tabor, J., Bearman, P. S., & Udry, J. R. (2008). The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: Research design. Retrieved September 8, 2009, from
  82. Hart, M. B. (2006). What five-year-old children say about their attachment security and their ­coping strategies when presented with stressful situations in story form: An exploratory study. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 66(9-A), 3463.Google Scholar
  83. Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 511–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Heran, W. J. (2006). The effects of global empathy training on attachment styles, social competencies and empathy deficits with male adolescent sex offenders in court-ordered residential treatment. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 66(9-A), 3463.Google Scholar
  85. Hirschfeld, R., Klerman, G., Gough, H., Barrett, J., Korchin, S., & Chodoff, P. (1977). A measure of interpersonal dependency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41(6), 610–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hockenberry, S. L., & Billingham, R. E. (1987). Sexual orientation and boyhood gender ­conformity: Development of the Boyhood Gender Conformity Scale (BGCS). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16(6), 475–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hoffman, J. A. (1984). Psychological separation of late adolescents from their parents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(2), 170–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hudson, W. W. (1990). The MPSI technical manual. Tempe, AZ: Walmer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  89. Hudson, W. (1997). Walmyr Assessment Scales Scoring Manual. Tallahassee, FL: Walmyr Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  90. Inch, L. J. (1999). Aspects of foster fathering. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 16(5), 393–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Inderbitzen, H. M., & Foster, S. L. (1992). The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: Development, reliability, and validity. Psychological Assessment, 4(4), 451–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ireton, H., & Thwing, E. (1980). Minnesota Infant Development Inventory. Minneapolis, MN: Behavior Science Systems.Google Scholar
  93. Ispa, J. M., Sable, M. R., Porter, N., & Csizmadia, A. (2007). Pregnancy acceptance, parenting stress, and toddler attachment in low-income black families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Iwaniec, D., & Sneddon, H. (2001). Attachment style in adults who failed to thrive as children: Outcomes of a 20 year follow-up study of factors influencing maintenance or change in attachment style. British Journal of Social Work, 31(2), 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jones, K. A., & Benda, B. B. (2004). Alcohol use among adolescents with non-residential fathers: A study of assets and deficits. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 22(1), 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kerns, K. A., Klepac, L., & Cole, A. (1996). Peer relationships and preadolescents’ perceptions of security in the child-mother relationship. Developmental Psychology, 32(3), 457–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kessler, T. A. (1998). The Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Research in Nursing & Health, 21(1), 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kobasa, S. C., & Puccetti, M. C. (1983). Personality and social resources in stress resistance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 839–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Landolt, M. A., Bartholomew, K., Saffrey, C., Oram, D., & Perlman, D. (2004). Gender nonconformity, childhood rejection, and adult attachment: A study of gay men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33(2), 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  101. Leifer, M., Kilbane, T., Jacobsen, T., & Grossman, G. (2004). A three-generational study of transmission of risk for sexual abuse. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 662–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. London, K., Peterson, L., & Piccinino, L. (1995). The National Survey of Family Growth: Principal source of statistics on unintended pregnancy: Supplement to Chapter 2. In S. S. Brown & L. Eisenberg (Eds.), The best intentions. Unintended pregnancy and the well-being of children and families (pp. 286–295). Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  103. Lonergan, M. R. (2003). Parental attachment, psychological separation and learning-disabled and non-disabled students’ success in a college away from home. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 64(5-A), 1849.Google Scholar
  104. Lyn, T. S., & Burton, D. L. (2004). Adult attachment and sexual offender status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(2), 150–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McCarthy, G. D. E. (2003). The clinician’s guide to the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC): A review. Clinical Social Work Journal, 31(4), 440–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. McCarthy, G. D. E. (2007). Doing well and doing poorly in care: Caregivers’ attachment status and other risk and resilience predictors of children’s outcomes in kinship, foster, and adoptive placements. US: Smith College School of Social Work.Google Scholar
  107. McMillen, J. C. (1992). Attachment theory and clinical social work. Clinical Social Work Journal, 20(2), 205–218.Google Scholar
  108. McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., & Peters, R. (1992). The fifth edition of the Addiction Severity Index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9(3), 199–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mikulincer, M., & Florian, V. (2000). Exploring individual differences in reactions to mortality salience: Does attachment style regulate terror management mechanisms? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(2), 260–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mikulincer, M., Florian, V., & Tolmacz, R. (1990). Attachment styles and fear of personal death: A case study of affect regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 273–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Milner, J. (1984). CAP Inventory Form IV. De Kalb, IL: Psytec Corporation.Google Scholar
  112. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1997). The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security: Results of the NICHD study of early child care. Child Development, 68(5), 860–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Olson, S. L. (1985). The preschool competence questionnaire: Factor structure, longitudinal stability, and convergence with ratings of maladjustment. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  114. Olson, D. H. (1986). Circumplex model VII: Validation studies and FACES III. Family Process, 25(3), 337–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Olson, S. L., & Lifgren, K. (1988). Concurrent and longitudinal correlates of preschool peer sociometrics: Comparing rating scale and nomination measures. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 9(4), 409–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Orr, E., & Westman, M. (1990). Does hardiness moderate stress, and how? A review. In M. Rosenbaum (Ed.), On coping skills, self-control, and adaptive behavior (pp. 64–94). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  117. Page, T., & Bretherton, I. (2003). Representations of attachment to father in the narratives of preschool girls in post-divorce families: Implications for family relationships and social ­development. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 20(2), 99–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pearlman, L. A. (1996). The Traumatic Stress Institute Belief Scale, Revision L. In B. Stamm (Ed.), Measurement of stress, trauma and adaptation (pp. 415–417). Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.Google Scholar
  120. Perris, C. (1988). A theoretical framework for linking the experience of dysfunctional parental rearing attitudes with manifest psychopathology. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78(344), 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Perris, C., Fowler, D., Skagerlind, I., Olsson, M., & Thorsson, C. (1998). Development and preliminary application of a new scale for assessing dysfunctional working models of self and others (DWM-S) in severely disturbed patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98(3), 219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Perris, C., Jacobsson, L., Lindstrom, H., von Knorring, L., & Perris, H. (1980). Development of a new inventory for assessing memories of parental rearing behaviour. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 61(4), 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pottharst, K., & Kessler, R. (1990). Appendix A: Attachment History Questionnaire. In K. Pottharst (Ed.), Research explorations in adult attachment (pp. 338–353). New York: Peter Lang Publishing.Google Scholar
  125. Resnick, H. S., Best, C. L., Kilpatrick, D. G., Freedy, J. R., & Falsetti, S. A. (1993). Trauma Assessment for Adults–Self–Report. Charleston, SC: The National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, Medical University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  126. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992). Behavior Assessment System for Children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
  127. Rodell, D. E., Benda, B. B., & Rodell, L. (2003). Suicidal thoughts among homeless alcohol and other drug abusers. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 21(2), 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  129. Rothbart, M. K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52(2), 569–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Runyan, D., Hunter, W., & Everson, M. (1992). Maternal support for child victims of sexual abuse: Determinants and implications. Final report (Grant No. 90-CA-B68). Washington, DC: National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.Google Scholar
  131. Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schofield, G., & Brown, K. (1999). Being there: A family centre worker’s role as a secure base for adolescent girls in crisis. Child & Family Social Work, 4(1), 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schwartz, A. E., McRoy, R. G., & Downs, A. C. (2004). Adolescent mothers in a transitional ­living facility: An exploratory study of support networks and attachment patterns. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(1), 85–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Selzer, M. L., Vinokur, A., & van Rooijen, L. (1975). A self-administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST). Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 36(1), 117–126.Google Scholar
  135. Sherer, M. (1982). The Self-efficacy Scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51(2), 663–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sim, T. N., & Loh, B. S. M. (2003). Attachment to God: Measurement and dynamics. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20(3), 373–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Snyder, D. K. (1997). Marital Satisfaction Inventory, Revised (MSI-R) manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  138. Stalker, C. A., Gebotys, R., & Harper, K. (2005). Insecure attachment as a predictor of outcome following inpatient trauma treatment for women survivors of childhood abuse. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 69(2), 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Steinberg, L., & Silverberg, S. B. (1986). The vicissitudes of autonomy in early adolescence. Child Development, 57(4), 841–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 41(1), 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tellegen, A. (1982). Brief manual for the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  143. Turnage, B. F. (2004). African American mother- daughter relationships mediating daughter’s self-esteem. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21(2), 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1999). Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 11(2), 225–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Veit, C. T., & Ware, J. E. (1983). The structure of psychological distress and well-being in general populations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 730–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wagnild, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165–178.Google Scholar
  147. Waters, E. (1987). Attachment behavior Q-set: Revision 3.0. Unpublished manuscript, State University of New York, Stony Brook.Google Scholar
  148. Weissman, A. N. (1979). The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: A validation study. US: ProQuest Information & Learning.Google Scholar
  149. Weissman, A. N., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: A preliminary investigation. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  150. Wells, K. (1999). Caregiver Interview Form (6/6/99 ed.). Cleveland, OH: Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University.Google Scholar
  151. West, M., Rose, S., Spreng, S., & Adam, K. (2000). The Adolescent Unresolved Attachment Questionnaire: The assessment of perceptions of parental abdication of caregiving behavior. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161(4), 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. West, M., Rose, M. S., Spreng, S., Sheldon-Keller, A., & Adam, K. (1998). Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire: A brief assessment of attachment in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27(5), 661–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. West, M., Sheldon, A., & Reiffer, L. (1987). An approach to the delineation of adult attachment: Scale development and reliability. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175(12), 738–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. West, M., & Sheldon-Keller, A. (1994). Patterns of relating: An adult attachment perspective. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  155. Zakin, G., Solomon, Z., & Neria, Y. (2003). Hardiness, attachment style, and long term psychological distress among Israeli POWs and combat veterans. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(5), 819–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Social WorkUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations