Global Mobility, Local Economy: It’s Work Psychology, Stupid!

Chapter
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Abstract

Local economies are present at the beginning, middle and end of global mobility. So too is the workplace. A neglected stimulus to emigrate from lower-income settings is the derisory remuneration that many skilled Indigenous professionals receive, compared to imported expatriate counterparts. As economic new settlers too, however, they can face discriminatory job selection practices, becoming under-employed. Those with most persistence and other capabilities may choose to stay abroad, distorting which competencies return home. These stages in the journey of many skilled new settlers expose the “migration-development nexus” as rhetoric rather than reality. This chapter responds to calls in the 2009 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Programme which argues for a fresh, inter-disciplinary approach to overcoming precisely these kinds of barriers to human development.

Keywords

Dual salary system Double de-motivation Brain waste Competency development Talent flow Human capability Migration-development nexus Barriers to human development Poverty reduction 

Abbreviations

ADDUP

Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance?

CART

Classification and Regression Trees

CHAID

Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector

DFID

Department for International Development

EAC

East African Community

ESRC

Economic and Social Research Council

HCNs

Host Country Nationals

IOM

International Organization for Migration

ILO

International Labour Organization

SET

Social Equity Theory

SMEs

Subject-Matter Experts

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

Notes

Acknowledgments

I wish to thank the staff in Project ADDUP, the Poverty Research Group, and the Talent Flow Programme for their invaluable input and support. Project ADDUP has been funded jointly by the United Kingdom’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), and the Department for International Development (DFID). The Talent Flow Program was funded jointly by Massey University’s Strategic Research Fund, and by the Schools of Psychology and Management & International Business. Their support is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Abbott, M. W., Wong, S., Williams, M., Au, M., & Young, W. (1999). Chinese migrants’ mental health and adjustment to life in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 62, 335–343.Google Scholar
  3. ADDUP (2009). Elephants in the parlour: The dual salary system in six economies. Albany, NZ: Massey University.Google Scholar
  4. Al Ariss, A., & Őzbilgin, M. (2010). Understanding self-initiated expatriates: Career experiences of Lebanese self-initiated expatriates in France. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52, in press.Google Scholar
  5. Alwin, D. F. (2007). Margins of error: A study of reliability in survey measurement. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Begley, T. M. (2003). The employment relationships of foreign workers versus local employees: A field study of organizational justice, job satisfaction, performance, and OCB. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 561–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Tenpler, K. J., Tay, C., et al. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3, 335–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Argyris, C. (1998). A conversation with Chris Argyris: The father of organizational learning. Organizational Dynamics, 27, 21–33.Google Scholar
  9. Argyris, C. (1999). Tacit knowledge and management. In R. J. Sternberg, & J. A. Horvarth (Eds.), Tacit knowledge in professional practice: Researcher and practitioner perspectives (pp. 123–140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Arvey, R. D. (1979). Unfair discrimination in the employment interview: Legal and psychological aspects. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 736–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aycan, Z., & Koc, U. (1999). Effects of workplace integration on immigrants’ psychological wellbeing and adaptation. Turk Psikolji Dergisi, 14, 17–33 (abstract only).Google Scholar
  12. Aycan, Z., Kanungo, R. N., & Sinha, J. B. P. (1999). Organizational culture and human resource management practices. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 501–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartram, D. (2005). The great eight competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1185–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baruch, Y., Budhwar, P. S., & Khatri, N. (2007). Brain drain: Inclination to stay abroad after studies. Journal of World Business, 42, 99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bennington, L., & Wein, R. (2002). Aiding and abetting employer discrimination: The job applicant’s role. Employee responsibilities & Rights Journal, 14, 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bertua, C., Anderson, N., & Salgado, J. F. (2005). The predictive validity of cognitive ability tests: A UK meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 387–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baritz, L. (1960). Servants of power. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, R. P. C., & Connell, J. (2004). The migration of doctors and nurses from South Pacific Island Nations. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 2193–2210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bryson, J., & Hosken, C. (2005). What does it mean to be a culturally competent I/O psychologist in New Zealand? New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 34, 69–76.Google Scholar
  20. Byrne, D. (1997). An overview (and underview) of the research and theory within the attraction paradigm. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 14, 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carr, S. C. (2003). Social psychology: Context, communication and culture. Brisbane: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Carr, S. C. (2004). Globalization and culture: Exploring their combined glocality. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Carr, S. C., & Bandawe, C. R. (2010). Psychology applied to poverty. In P. Martin, F. Cheung, M. Kyrios, L. Littlefield, M. Knowles, J. M Prieto, & J. B. Overmier (Eds.), The IAAP handbook of applied psychology (in press). Brisbane: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Carr, S. C., & MacLachlan, M. (Eds.). (2005). “Knowledge Flow and Capacity Development”. Special Issue of Higher Education Policy, 18(3), 199–325. UNESCO/Palgrave.Google Scholar
  25. Carr, S. C., MacLachlan, M., & McAuliffe, E. (1998). Psychology of aid. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Carr, S. C., McLoughlin, D., Hodgson, M., & MacLachlan, M. (1996). Effects of unreasonable pay discrepancies for under- and over-payment on double de-motivation. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 122, 477–494.Google Scholar
  27. Carr, S. C., MacLachlan, M., & Campbell, D. (1997). Development through educational collaboration: Facilitating social equity. Higher Education Policy, 10, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carr, S. C., MacLachlan, M., & Chipande, R. (1998). Expatriate aid salaries in Malaŵi: A doubly de-motivating influence? International Journal of Educational Development, 18(2), 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carr, S. C., Rugimbana, R. O., Walkom, E., & Bolitho, F. H. (2001). Selecting expatriates in developing areas: “Country-of-Origin” effects in Tanzania. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(4), 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carr, S. C., Hodgson, M. R., Vent, D. H., & Purcell, I. P. (2005). Pay diversity across work teams: Doubly de-motivating influences? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20 (5), 417–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Carr, S. C., Inkson, K., Thorn, K. J., Jackson, J. D. R., Edwards, M. F., Hooks, J. J., et al. (2005, July). Does achievement motivation predict reverse brain drain? An online study of the Kiwi Diaspora. Proceedings of the 6th Australian Industrial & Organisational Psychology Conference, Gold Coast, 30 June–3 July. Peer-reviewed conference.Google Scholar
  32. Carr, S. C., Inkson, K., & Thorn, K. (2005). From global careers to talent flow: Re-interpreting brain drain. Journal of World Business, 40, 386–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chan, K. (2001). Utilising the immigrants we already have. Managing Human Resources Today, 65, 14–15.Google Scholar
  34. Chen, C. C., Choi, J., & Chi, S. C. (2002). Making justice sense of local-expatriate compensation disparity: Mitigation by local referents, ideological explanations, and interpersonal sensitivity in China-foreign joint ventures. Academy of Management Review, 45, 807–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Coates, K., & Carr, S. C. (2005). Skilled immigrants and selection bias. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 577–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Colic-Peisker, V., & Tilbury, F. (2006). Employment niches for recent refugees: Segmented labour market in twenty-first century Australia. Journal of Refugee Studies, 19, 203–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davis, J. C. (1969). The J-curve of rising and declining satisfaction as a cause of some great revolutions and a contained rebellion. In H. D. Graham & T. R. Gurr (Eds.), The history of violence in America: Historical and comparative perspectives (pp. 690–730). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  38. Department of Labor. (2003). Skilled migrants: Labor market experiences. Wellington: New Zealand Immigration Service.Google Scholar
  39. Dovidio, J. F., & Esses, V. M. (2001). Immigrants and immigration: Advancing the psychological perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 378–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dreachslin, J. L., Weech-Maldonado, R., & Dansky, K. H. (2004). Racial and ethnic diversity and organizational behaviour: A focused research agenda for health services management. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 961–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Evers, A., & van der Flier, H. (1998). Ethnic minorities on the labor market. In P. J. D. Drenth, H. Thierry, & C. J. de Wolff (Eds.), Handbook of work and organizational psychology (pp. 229–259). Hove, UK: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  43. Feldman, D. C. (1996). The nature, antecedents and consequences of underemployment. Journal of Management, 22, 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ferris, G. R., Perrewé, P. L., & Anthony, W. P. (2000). Political skill at work. Organizational Dynamics, 28, 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Festing, M., Eidems, J., & Royer, S. (2007). Strategic issues and local constraints in transnational compensation strategies: An analysis of cultural, institutional and political influences. European Management Journal, 25, 118–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Festinger, L. (1950). Informal social communication. Psychological Review, 57, 271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fleishman, E. A., & Reilly, M. E. (1992). Handbook of human abilities: Definitions, measurements, and job task requirements. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  49. Freud, S. (1961). Civilization and its discontents. (Translated from 1930, pp. 58–63). New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  50. Furnham, A. (2008). Personality and intelligence at work. Hove, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gibson, J., & McKenzie, D. (2009). The micro-economic determinants of emigration and return migration of the best and brightest: Evidence from the Pacific. Washington, DC: World Bank Development Research Group.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Greenberg, J. (2007). The top ten reasons why everyone should know about, and study, organizational justice. In A. I. Glendon, B. M. Thompson, & B. Myors (Eds.), Advances in organizational psychology (pp. 323–346). Brisbane: Australian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  53. Guttman, L. (1954). A new approach to factor analysis: The radex. In P. F. Lazarsfeld (Ed.), Mathematical thinking in the social sciences (pp. 258–348). Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hansen, N. D., Rockwell, F. P. A., & Greene, A. F. (2000). Multicultural competence: Criteria and case examples. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 652–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Harris, J., & Todaro, M. (1970). Migration, unemployment and development: A two-sector analysis. American Economic Review, 60, 126–142.Google Scholar
  56. Haslberger, A., & Brewster, C. (2008). The expatriate family: An international perspective. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 33, 324–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  59. Hugo, G., Rudd, D., & Harris, K. (2001). Emigration from Australia: Economic implications. Adelaide: Committee for Economic Development of Australia Paper No. 77.Google Scholar
  60. Hülsheger, U. R., Maier, G. W., & Stumpp, T. (2007). Validity of General Mental Ability for the prediction of job performance and training success in Germany: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ila’ava, V. P. (1999). The dual salary policy: An obstacle to real human and national development. Development Bulletin, 50, 65–66.Google Scholar
  62. Inkson, K., Arthur, M. B., Pringle, J. K., & Barry, S. (1997). Expatriate assignment versus overseas experience: Contrasting models of human resource development. Journal of World Business, 32, 351–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Inkson, K., Carr, S. C., Allfree, N., Edwards, M. F., Hooks, J. J., Jackson, D. J. R., et al. (2007). The psychology of migration and talent flow: A New Zealand perspective. In A. I. Glendon, B. M. Myors, & B. M. Thompson (Eds.), Advances in organisational psychology: An Asia-Pacific perspective (pp. 301–321). Bowen Hills, QLD: Australian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  64. International Organization for Migration (IOM). (2006). Migration and development: Opportunities and challenges for policymakers. Geneva: IOM.Google Scholar
  65. Jackson, D. J. R., Carr, S. C., Edwards, M. E., Thorn, K., Allfree, N., Hooks, J. J., & Inkson, K. (2005). Exploring the dynamics of New Zealand’s talent flow. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 34, 110–116.Google Scholar
  66. Katseli, L., & Xenogiani, T. (2006). Migration: A negative or a positive driver for development. Policy Insights, 29, 1–2.Google Scholar
  67. Kealey, D. J., Protheroe, D. R., McDonald, D., & Vulpe, T. (2005). Re-examining the role of training in contributing to international project success: A literature review and an outline of a new model training program. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 289–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumaş-Tan, Z., Beagan, B., Loppie, C., MacLeod, A., & Frank, B. (2007). Measures of cultural competence: Examining hidden assumptions. Academic Medicine, 82, 548–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Latham, G. P. (2007). Work motivation: History, theory, research and practice. New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  70. Lavenex, S., & Kunz, R. (2008). The migration-development nexus in EU external relations. Journal of European Integration, 30, 439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lefkowitz, J. (2008). Expand the values of organizational psychology to match the quality of its ethics. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 29, 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lemieux, A., & Pratto, F. (2003). Poverty and prejudice. In S. C. Carr & T. S. Sloan (Eds.), Poverty and psychology: From global perspective to local practice (pp. 147–161). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  73. Leung, K., Wang, Z., & Smith, P. B. (2001). Job attitudes and organizational justice in joint venture hotels in China: The role of expatriate managers. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12, 926–945.Google Scholar
  74. Levitin, T., Quinn, R. P., & Staines, G. L. (1971). Sex discrimination against the American working woman. The American Behavioral Scientist, 15, 237–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lopez, O., Haigh, C., & Burnley, S. (2004). Relationship between hardiness and perceived stress in two generations of Latin American migrants. Australian Psychologist, 39, 238–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mace, K. A., Atkins, S., Fletcher, R., & Carr, S. C. (2005). Immigrant job hunting, labor market experiences, and feelings about occupational satisfaction in New Zealand: An exploratory study. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 34, 97–116.Google Scholar
  77. MacLachlan, M., Carr, S. C., & McAuliffe, E. (2010). The Aid Triangle. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  78. Mahroum, S. (2000). High skilled globetrotters: Mapping the international migration of human capital. R & D Management, 30, 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maier, N. F. (1955). Psychology in industry. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  80. Manning, R. (2006). Technical cooperation. The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Journal, 7, 111–138.Google Scholar
  81. Massey, D. S., Durand, J., & Malone, N. J. (2005). Principles of operation: Theories of international migration. In M. M. Suárez-Orozco, C. Suárez-Orozco, & D. B. Qìn-Hilliard (Eds.), The new immigration: An inter-disciplinary reader (pp. 21–34). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  82. Matter, D. E. (1977). High school graduates’ achievement motivation and economic development of a small Midwestern community from 1907 to 1967. Psychological Reports, 41, 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Maynard, D. C., Joseph, T. A., & Maynard, A. M. (2006). Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 509–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  85. McKenzie, D., Gibson, J., & Stillman, S. (2006). How important is selection? Experimental vs. non-experimental measures of the income gains from migration. Bonn, Germany: Discussion Paper IAZ DP 2087.Google Scholar
  86. McLoughlin, D., & Carr, S. C. (1997). Equity sensitivity and double de-motivation. Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 668–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Melamed, T. (1995). Barriers to women’s career success: Human capital, career choices, structural determinants, or simply sex discrimination. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 44, 295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Meyers, R., & Houssemand, C. (2006). Evaluating key competencies in the professional domain. Revue Européenne de Psychologie appliqué, 56, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Millsap, R. E., & Taylor, R. (1996). Latent variable models in the investigation of salary discrimination: Theory and practice. Journal of Management, 22, 653–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Morris, M. A., & Robie, C. (2001). A meta-analysis of the effects of cross-cultural training on expatriate performance and adjustment. International Journal of Training and Development, 5, 112–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Murphy, G. C., & Athanasou, J. A. (1999). The effect of unemployment on mental health. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Musser, G. (2006). The check is in the mail. Scientific American, 294, 18–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nickerson, R. S. (1999). How we know – and sometimes misjudge – what others know: Imputing one’s own knowledge to others. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 737–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nyberg-Sørensen, Van Hear, N., & Engberg-Pedersen, P. (2002). The migration-development nexus: Evidence and policy options. International Migration, 40, 49–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. O’Callaghan, M. L. (2002). The origins of the conflict. London, UK: Conciliation Resources.Google Scholar
  96. Ones, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (1999). Relative importance of personality dimensions for expatriate selection: A policy-capturing study. Human Performance, 12, 275–294.Google Scholar
  97. Ongley, P., & Blick, G. (2002). Employment and income of Pacific peoples in New Zealand. Wellington: Social Statistics Division, Statistics New Zealand.Google Scholar
  98. Podsiadlowski, A., & Ward, C. (2010). Global mobility and bias. In S. C. Carr (Ed.), The psychology of global mobility (in press). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  99. Robinson, M. D., & Clore, R. (2001). Simulation, scenarios, and emotional appraisal: Testing the convergence of real and imagined reactions to emotional stimuli. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1520–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ruber, P. (2000). The great foreign IT worker debate. Information Week, 814, 153–157.Google Scholar
  101. Salgado, J. F., Anderson, N., Moscoso, S., Bertua, C., & De Fruyt, F. (2003). International validity generalization of GMA and cognitive abilities: A European community meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 56, 573–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 24, 262–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. (2004) General Mental Ability in the world of work: Occupational attainment and job performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 162–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schneider, B., Smith, D. B., Taylor, S., & Fleenor, J. (1998). Personality and organizations: A test of the homogeneity of personality hypothesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 462–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Selmer, J. (2010). Global mobility and cross-cultural training. In S. C. Carr (Ed.), The Psychology of Global Mobility (in press). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  106. Sherif, M. (1965). The psychology of social norms. New York: Octagon Press.Google Scholar
  107. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance: An inter-group theory of social hierarchy and oppression. Cambridge, MA: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Siegel, P. A., & Hambrick, D. C. (2005). Pay disparities within top management groups: Evidence of harmful effects on performance of high-technology firms. Organization Science, 16, 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Statsoft (2005). CHAID analysis. http://wwwStatsoft.com/textbook/stchaid.html Accessed 4 January 2005.
  110. Sue, S. (1998, April). In search of cultural competence in psychotherapy and counselling. American Psychologist, 4, 440–448.Google Scholar
  111. Sweetman, A. (2009, November). The impacts of immigration on the receiving economy. Albany, Auckland: Massey University Visiting Speaker Seminar, 6 November.Google Scholar
  112. Tajfel, H. (1978) Differentiation between social groups. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  113. Taylor, D. M., & Moghaddam, F. M. (1994). Theories of inter-group relations: International social psychological perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  114. Tharenou, P. (2003). The initial development of receptivity to working abroad: Self-initiated international work opportunities in young graduate employees. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76, 489–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. The Economist. (2002). South African immigration: want them, throw them out. The Economist, 363, 43–44.Google Scholar
  116. The Measurement Group. (2005). The Measurement Group: CART or C&RT. http://www.themeasurementgroup.com/Definitions/CART.htm Accessed 2 January 2005.
  117. Thorn K. J. (2009). Flight of the Kiwi: An exploration of motives and behaviours of self-initiated mobility. Auckland: Massey University.Google Scholar
  118. Tidrick, K. (1971). Need for achievement, social class, and intention to emigrate in Jamaican students. Social & Economic Studies, 20, 52–60.Google Scholar
  119. Toh, S. M., & DeNisi, A. S. (2003). Host country national reactions to expatriate pay policies: A model and implications. Academy of Management Review, 28, 606–621.Google Scholar
  120. Toh, S. M., & DeNisi, A. S. (2005). A local perspective to expatriate success. Academy of Management Executive, 19, 132–146.Google Scholar
  121. Turner, J. C. (1991). Social influence. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  122. UNDP (United Nations Development Program). (2009). Human Development Report 2009 – Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development. New York: UNDP.Google Scholar
  123. United Nations. (2003). Human Development Report. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  124. Vainerere, T. (2009). AusAID funds to focus on MDGs. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 5 May.Google Scholar
  125. Werker, E., & Ahmed, F. Z. (2008). What do non-governmental organizations do? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22, 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Poverty Research Group, School of PsychologyMassey UniversityAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations