Geometric-Unconstrained Sequential Endmember Finding: Orthogonal Projection Analysis



Orthogonal Projection (OP) is probably the earliest and simplest convex geometry measure used as a criterion for finding endmembers without imposing abundance constraints. Pixel Purity Index (PPI) is the earliest algorithm developed by Boardman (International Geoscience Remote Sensing Symposium, 4:2369–2371, 1994) taking advantage of OP to find endmembers in hyperspectral images. It has become very popular and has enjoyed publicity because of its availability in the ENVI software, which has been widely used in the remote sensing community.


Independent Component Analysis Independent Component Analysis Background Pixel Minimum Projection Pure Signature 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BaltimoreUSA

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