MPEG Audio Compression Future

  • Schuyler Quackenbush


We have seen that MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 Audio coders used perceptually shaped quantization noise as the primary tool for achieving compression. MPEG-4 High-Efficiency AAC [1] added parametric coding of the upper spectrum region with the Spectral Band Replication tool and parametric coding of two-channel signals with the Parametric Stereo tool. The MPEG-D standards MPEG Surround [2] and Spatial Audio Object Coding [3] incorporate parametric coding of the sound stage using level, time and coherence parameters for regions of the time/frequency signal. The common thread in all of these tools is that they model and exploit how humans perceive sound.


Speech Signal Modify Discrete Cosine Transform Audio Code Code Tool Line Spectral Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author thanks Bernhard Grill of Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits for providing to the author unpublished information on USAC from which several of the slides in this chapter were adapted. The author also gratefully acknowledges the help given by Bernhard Grill, Max Neuendorf and Markus Multrus of Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits; Roch Lefebvre and Philippe Gournay of Voiceage Corp. and University of Sherbrooke; and Heiko Purnhagen and Kristofer Kjörling of Dolby who did a careful review of the draft text and provided many constructive comments.


  1. 1.
    ISO/IEC 14496–3:2009, Information technology – Coding of audio-visual objects – Part 3: Audio, Edition: 4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ISO/IEC 23003–1:2007, Information technology – MPEG audio technologies – Part 1: MPEG Surround; Edition: 1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ISO/IEC 23003–2:2010, Information technology – MPEG audio technologies – Part 2: Spatial Audio Object Coding (SAOC), Edition: 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    ISO/IEC 23003–3:2011, Information technology – MPEG audio technologies – Part 3: Unified speech and audio coding, Edition 1.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Neuendorf et al., “Unified Speech and Audio Coding Scheme for High Quality at Low Bit-rates, ICASSP ’09, Taipei, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Neuendorf et al., “A Novel Scheme for Low Bit-rate Unified Speech and Audio Coding – MPEG RM0,” 126th AES Convention, Munich, Germany, May 2009. Preprint #7713.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ISO/IEC WG11 N9519, “Call for Proposals on Unified Speech and Audio Coding”.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ETSI TS 126 290 V9.0.0 (2010–01), Digital cellular telecommunications system; Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS); LTE; Audio codec processing functions; Extended Adaptive Multi-Rate - Wideband (AMR-WB+) codec; (3GPP TS 26.290 version 9.0.0 Release 9).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marina Bosi, Karlheinz Brandenburg, Schuyler Quackenbush, Louis Fielder, Kenzo Akagiri, Hendrik Fuchs and Martin Dietz, “ISO/IEC MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding,” JAES Volume 45 Issue 10 pp. 789–814; October 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martin Dietz, Lars Liljeryd, Kristofer Kjorling and Oliver Kuntz, “Spectral Band Replication, a Novel approach in Audio Coding,” in 112th AES Convention, Munich, Germany, May 2001, preprint 5553.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martin Wolters, Kristofer Kjorling, Daniel Homm and Heiko Purnhagen, “A closer look into MPEG-4 High Efficiency AAC,” 115th AES Convention, New York, Oct. 2003, preprint 5871.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lefebvre, R.; Salami, R.; Laflamme, C.; Adoul, J.-P.; “High quality coding of wideband audio signals using transform coded excitation (TCX),” in Proc. ICASSP-94, vol. 1 pp. 193–6, April 1994, Adelaide, Australia.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jari Makinen, Bruno Bessette, Stefan Bruhn, Pasi Ojala, Redwan Salami and Anisse Taleb, “AMR-WB+: a new audio coding standard for 3rd generation mobile audio services,” in Proc. IEEE ICASSP ’05, March 2005, vol. 2, pp. 1109–12.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    John Princen and Alan Bradley, “Analysis/Synthesis Filter Bank Design Based on Time Domain Aliasing Cancellation,” IEEE Trans. ASSP, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1153–61, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Laflamme, C.; Adoul, J.-P.; Su, H.Y.; Morissette, S., “On reducing computational complexity of codebook search in CELP coder through the use of algebraic codes,” Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1990. 1990 International Conference on ICASSP-90, vol., no., pp.177–180 vol.1, 3–6 Apr 1990.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cox, R.V.; Kroon, P.; “Low bit-rate speech coders for multimedia communication,” Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol.34, no.12, pp.34–41, Dec 1996.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herre, Jürgen et al., “MPEG Surround-The ISO/MPEG Standard for Efficient and Compatible Multichannel Audio Coding,” JAES Volume 56 Issue 11 pp. 932–955; November 2008.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    ITU “Method for the subjective assessment of intermediate sound quality (MUSHRA),” 2001, ITU-R Recommendation BS. 1543–1, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Audio Research LabsScotch PlainsUSA

Personalised recommendations