Implant-Associated Infection

  • Werner Zimmerli
  • Andrej Trampuz


During the last 50 years, medical devices have gained growing importance (Darouiche 2004). On the one side, there is an increasing need due to the higher median age of the population suffering from degenerative diseases. On the other side, technology evolved and many functions can be replaced by novel medical devices, such as cochlear implants, brain stimulators, and ventricular assist devices (Waldvogel and Bisno 2000). In addition, the broader availability of health insurance in some countries led to an increased use especially of orthopedic and cardiac devices. As an example, the annual number of inserted joint prostheses is 600,000, and the one of inserted pacemaker-defibrillators is 300,000 in USA (Darouiche 2004).


Antimicrobial Therapy Cochlear Implant Periprosthetic Joint Infection Prosthetic Joint Infection Capsular Contracture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahlberg A, Carlsson AS, Lindberg L (1978) Hematogenous infection in total joint replacement. Clin Orthop Relat Res (137):69–75Google Scholar
  2. Akhan SE, Dogan Y, Akhan S et al (2008) Pelvic actinomycosis mimicking ovarian malignancy: three cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 29(3):294–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacteremia in patients with total joint replacements. Document no 1033. Accessed 3 August 2010
  4. Antonios VS, Baddour LM (2004) Intra-arterial device infections. Curr Infect Dis Rep 6(4):263–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonios VS, Noel AA, Steckelberg JM et al (2006) Prosthetic vascular graft infection: a risk factor analysis using a case-control study. J Infect 53(1):49–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldoni D, Haschke M, Rajacic Z et al (2009) Linezolid alone or combined with rifampin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in experimental foreign-body infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53(3):1142–1148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Berardinelli L (2006) Grafts and graft materials as vascular substitutes for haemodialysis access construction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 32(2):203–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berbari EF, Osmon DR, Duffy MC et al (2006) Outcome of prosthetic joint infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: the impact of medical and surgical therapy in 200 episodes. Clin Infect Dis 42(2):216–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berbari EF, Osmon DR, Carr A et al (2010) Dental procedures as risk factors for prosthetic hip or knee infection: a hospitals based prospective case-control study. Clin Infect Dis 50(1):8–16Google Scholar
  10. Brandt CM, Sistrunk WW, Duffy MC et al (1997) Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention. Clin Infect Dis 24(5):914–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brause B (2005) Infections with prostheses in bones and joints. In: Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R (eds) Principles and practice of infectious diseases, 6th edn. WB Saunders, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  12. Bressler AM, Zimmer SM, Gilmore JL et al (2004) Peripheral neuropathy associated with prolonged use of linezolid. Lancet Infect Dis 4(8):528–531CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bucher E, Trampuz A, Donati L et al (2000) Spondylodiscitis associated with bacteraemia due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 19(2):118–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Byren I, Bejon P, Atkins BL et al (2009) One hundred and twelve infected arthroplasties treated with “DAIR” (debridement, antibiotics and implant retention): antibiotic duration and outcome. J Antimicrob Chemother 63(6):1264–1271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carpenter CF, Chambers HF (2004) Daptomycin: another novel agent for treating infections due to drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. Clin Infect Dis 38(7):994–1000CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chua JD, Wilkoff BL, Lee I et al (2000) Diagnosis and management of infections involving implantable electrophysiologic cardiac devices. Ann Intern Med 133(8):604–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chun JK, Schulman MR (2007) The infected breast prosthesis after mastectomy reconstruction: successful salvage of nine implants in eight consecutive patients. Plast Reconstr Surg 120(3):581–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Colyer RA, Capello WN (1994) Surgical treatment of the infected hip implant. Two-stage reimplantation with a one-month interval. Clin Orthop Relat Res (298):75–79Google Scholar
  19. Conen A, Walti LN, Merlo A et al (2008) Characteristics and treatment outcome of cerebrospinal fluid shunt-associated infections in adults: a retrospective analysis over an 11-year period. Clin Infect Dis 47(1):73–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Crockarell JR, Hanssen AD, Osmon DR et al (1998) Treatment of infection with debridement and retention of the components following hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 80(9):1306–1313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Darouiche RO (2001) Device-associated infections: a macroproblem that starts with microadherence. Clin Infect Dis 33(9):1567–1572CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Darouiche RO (2004) Treatment of infections associated with surgical implants. N Engl J Med 350(14):1422–1429CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Davies DG, Parsek MR, Pearson JP et al (1998) The involvement of cell-to-cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science 280(5361):295–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Del Pozo JL, Tran NV, Petty PM et al (2009) Pilot study of association of bacteria on breast implants with capsular contracture. J Clin Microbiol 47(5):1333–1337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Drancourt M, Stein A, Argenson JN et al (1997) Oral treatment of Staphylococcus spp. infected orthopaedic implants with fusidic acid or ofloxacin in combination with rifampicin. J Antimicrob Chemother 39(2):235–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Drew RH, Perfect JR, Srinath L et al (2000) Treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus infections with quinupristin-dalfopristin in patients intolerant of or failing prior therapy. For the Synercid Emergency-Use Study Group. J Antimicrob Chemother 46(5):775–784CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Elek SD, Conen PE (1957) The virulence of Staphylococcus pyogenes for man; a study of the problems of wound infection. Br J Exp Pathol 38(6):573–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Frazier OH, Gemmato C, Myers TJ et al (2007) Initial clinical experience with the HeartMate II axial-flow left ventricular assist device. Tex Heart Inst J 34(3):275–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frippiat F, Meunier F, Derue G (2004) Place of newer quinolones and rifampicin in the treatment of Gram-positive bone and joint infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 54(6):1158; author reply 1159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gabriel SE, Woods JE, O’Fallon WM et al (1997) Complications leading to surgery after breast implantation. N Engl J Med 336(10):677–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Garzoni C, Kelley WL (2009) Staphylococcus aureus: new evidence for intracellular persistence. Trends Microbiol 17(2):59–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Geissdorfer W, Tandler R, Schlundt C et al (2007) Fatal bioprosthetic aortic valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium valvarum. J Clin Microbiol 45(7):2324–2326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Giulieri SG, Graber P, Ochsner PE et al (2004) Management of infection associated with total hip arthroplasty according to a treatment algorithm. Infection 32(4):222–228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gotz F (2002) Staphylococcus and biofilms. Mol Microbiol 43(6):1367–1378CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gristina AG, Jennings RA, Naylor PT et al (1989) Comparative in vitro antibiotic resistance of surface-colonizing coagulase-negative staphylococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33(6):813–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Haas D, Kaiser A (2000) Antimicrobial prophyloxis of infections associated with foreign bodies. In: Bisno AL, Waldvogel FA, Infections associated with indwelling medical devices, 3rd ed, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Hall-Stoodley L, Costerton JW, Stoodley P (2004) Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases. Nat Rev Microbiol 2(2):95–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hammermeister K, Sethi GK, Henderson WG et al (2000) Outcomes 15 years after valve replacement with a mechanical versus a bioprosthetic valve: final report of the Veterans Affairs randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 36(4):1152–1158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Jacobsen SM, Stickler DJ, Mobley HL et al (2008) Complicated catheter-associated urinary tract infections due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Clin Microbiol Rev 21(1):26–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Jassal SV, Lok CE (2008) A randomized controlled trial comparing mupirocin versus Polysporin Triple for the prevention of catheter-related infections in peritoneal dialysis patients (the MP3 study). Perit Dial Int 28(1):67–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. John AK, Baldoni D, Haschke M et al (2009) Efficacy of daptomycin in implant-associated infection due to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): the importance of combination with rifampin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2719–2724Google Scholar
  42. Klinge B, Hultin M, Berglundh T (2005) Peri-implantitis. Dent Clin North Am 49(3):661–676, vii–viiiCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Klug D, Balde M, Pavin D et al (2007) Risk factors related to infections of implanted pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators: results of a large prospective study. Circulation 116(12):1349–1355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Konig DP, Perdreau-Remington F, Rutt J et al (1998) Slime production of Staphylococcus epidermidis: increased bacterial adherence and accumulation onto pure titanium. Acta Orthop Scand 69(5):523–526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Laffer RR, Graber P, Ochsner PE et al (2006) Outcome of prosthetic knee-associated infection: evaluation of 40 consecutive episodes at a single centre. Clin Microbiol Infect 12(5):433–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Langlais F (2003) Can we improve the results of revision arthroplasty for infected total hip replacement? J Bone Joint Surg Br 85(5):637–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lanzetta M, Owen ER (1995) Neo-endothelialisation of PTFE microvascular grafts: a five-year experience. Microsurgery 16(6):404–411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Leonhardt A, Dahlen G, Renvert S (2003) Five-year clinical, microbiological, and radiological outcome following treatment of peri-implantitis in man. J Periodontol 74(10):1415–1422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Liberatore M, Iurilli AP, Ponzo F et al (1998) Clinical usefulness of technetium-99m-HMPAO-labeled leukocyte scan in prosthetic vascular graft infection. J Nucl Med 39(5):875–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lietard C, Thebaud V, Besson G et al (2008) Risk factors for neurosurgical site infections: an 18-month prospective survey. J Neurosurg 109(4):729–734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lucas VS, Lytra V, Hassan T et al (2002) Comparison of lysis filtration and an automated blood culture system (BACTEC) for detection, quantification, and identification of odontogenic bacteremia in children. J Clin Microbiol 40(9):3416–3420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Maderazo EG, Judson S, Pasternak H (1988) Late infections of total joint prostheses. A review and recommendations for prevention. Clin Orthop Relat Res (229):131–142Google Scholar
  53. Maki DG, Kluger DM, Crnich CJ (2006) The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. Mayo Clin Proc 81(9):1159–1171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Marculescu CE, Berbari EF, Hanssen AD et al (2006) Outcome of prosthetic joint infections treated with debridement and retention of components. Clin Infect Dis 42(4):471–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Marrie TJ, Costerton JW (1984) Morphology of bacterial attachment to cardiac pacemaker leads and power packs. J Clin Microbiol 19(6):911–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ochsner P, Sirkin M, Trampuz A (2006) Acute infection. In: Ruedi RP, Murphy WM (eds) AO principles of fracture. Management, Stuttgart, ThiemeGoogle Scholar
  57. Olsen MA, Chu-Ongsakul S, Brandt KE et al (2008) Hospital-associated costs due to surgical site infection after breast surgery. Arch Surg 143(1):53–60; discussion 61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Oxenham H, Bloomfield P, Wheatley DJ et al (2003) Twenty year comparison of a Bjork-Shiley mechanical heart valve with porcine bioprostheses. Heart 89(7):715–721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Pallasch T, Wahl M (2003) Focal infection: new age or ancient history. Endodontic Topics 4:32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Perez AR, Roxas MF, Hilvano SS (2005) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for tension-free mesh herniorrhaphy. J Am Coll Surg 200(3):393–397; discussion 397–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Piraino B, Bailie GR, Bernardini J et al (2005) Peritoneal dialysis-related infections recommendations: 2005 update. Perit Dial Int 25(2):107–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Pittet B, Montandon D, Pittet D (2005) Infection in breast implants. Lancet Infect Dis 5(2):94–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Pittet D, Harbarth S, Ruef C et al (1999) Prevalence and risk factors for nosocomial infections in four university hospitals in Switzerland. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 20(1):37–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Qvarfordt PG, Reilly LM, Mark AS et al (1985) Computerized tomographic assessment of graft incorporation after aortic reconstruction. Am J Surg 150(2):227–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Raad I, Hanna H, Maki D (2007) Intravascular catheter-related infections: advances in diagnosis, prevention, and management. Lancet Infect Dis 7(10):645–657CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ramage G, Tunney MM, Patrick S et al (2003) Formation of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms on orthopaedic biomaterials and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Biomaterials 24(19):3221–3227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Raut VV, Siney PD, Wroblewski BM (1994) One-stage revision of infected total hip replacements with discharging sinuses. J Bone Joint Surg Br 76(5):721–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Razonable RR, Osmon DR, Steckelberg JM (2004) Linezolid therapy for orthopedic infections. Mayo Clin Proc 79(9):1137–1144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rieger UM, Pierer G, Luscher NJ et al (2009) Sonication of removed breast implants for improved detection of subclinical infection. Aesthetic Plast Surg 33(3):404–408Google Scholar
  70. Roumbelaki M, Kritsotakis EI, Tsioutis C et al (2008) Surveillance of surgical site infections at a tertiary care hospital in Greece: incidence, risk factors, microbiology, and impact. Am J Infect Control 36(10):732–738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Sanchez-Manuel FJ, Lozano-Garcia J, Seco-Gil JL (2007) Antibiotic prophylaxis for hernia repair. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD003769Google Scholar
  72. Schwank S, Rajacic Z, Zimmerli W et al (1998) Impact of bacterial biofilm formation on in vitro and in vivo activities of antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42(4):895–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Schwarz F, Bieling K, Sculean A et al (2004) [Treatment of periimplantitis with laser or ultrasound. A review of the literature]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 114(12):1228–1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sculean A, Schwarz F, Becker J (2005) Anti-infective therapy with an Er:YAG laser: influence on peri-implant healing. Expert Rev Med Devices 2(3):267–276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Sendi P, Proctor RA (2009) Staphylococcus aureus as an intracellular pathogen: the role of small colony variants. Trends Microbiol 17(2):54–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sendi P, Rohrbach M, Graber P et al (2006) Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in prosthetic joint infection. Clin Infect Dis 43(8):961–967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Shah Z, Lehman JA Jr, Tan J (1981) Does infection play a role in breast capsular contracture? Plast Reconstr Surg 68(1):34–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shirtliff ME, Calhoun JH, Mader JT (2001) Comparative evaluation of oral levofloxacin and parenteral nafcillin in the treatment of experimental methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in rabbits. J Antimicrob Chemother 48(2):253–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Spear SL, Howard MA, Boehmler JH et al (2004) The infected or exposed breast implant: management and treatment strategies. Plast Reconstr Surg 113(6):1634–1644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Steckelberg JM, Osmon DR (2000) Prosthetic joint infection. In: Waldvogel FA (ed) 3rd edn ASM Press Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  81. Suter F, Avai A, Fusco U et al (1994) Teicoplanin versus cefamandole in the prevention of infection in total hip replacement. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13(10):793–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Swain TW, 3rd, Calligaro KD, Dougherty MD (2004) Management of infected aortic prosthetic grafts. Vasc Endovascular Surg 38(1):75–82CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Tattevin P, Cremieux AC, Pottier P et al (1999) Prosthetic joint infection: when can prosthesis salvage be considered? Clin Infect Dis 29(2):292–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Trampuz A, Hanssen AD, Osmon DR et al (2004) Synovial fluid leukocyte count and differential for the diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection. Am J Med 117(8):556–562CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Trampuz A, Osmon DR, Hanssen AD et al (2003) Molecular and antibiofilm approaches to prosthetic joint infection. Clin Orthop Relat Res (414):69–88Google Scholar
  86. Trampuz A, Piper KE, Jacobson MJ et al (2007) Sonication of removed hip and knee prostheses for diagnosis of infection. N Engl J Med 357(7):654–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Trampuz A, Zimmerli W (2005) Prosthetic joint infections: update in diagnosis and treatment. Swiss Med Wkly 135(17–18):243–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Trampuz A, Zimmerli W (2006) Antimicrobial agents in orthopaedic surgery: Prophylaxis and treatment. Drugs 66(8):1089–1105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Trampuz A, Zimmerli W (2008) Diagnosis and treatment of implant-associated septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 10(5):394–403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Troidle L, Finkelstein F (2006) Treatment and outcome of CPD-associated peritonitis. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 5:6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ure KJ, Amstutz HC, Nasser S et al (1998) Direct-exchange arthroplasty for the treatment of infection after total hip replacement. An average ten-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am 80(7):961–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Uslan DZ, Sohail MR, St Sauver JL et al (2007) Permanent pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator infection: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med 167(7):669–675CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Valentine RJ, Timaran CH, Modrall GJ et al (2008) Secondary aortoenteric fistulas versus paraprosthetic erosions: is bleeding associated with a worse outcome? J Am Coll Surg 207(6):922–927CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. van der Ploeg JR (2008) Characterization of Streptococcus gordonii prophage PH15: complete genome sequence and functional analysis of phage-encoded integrase and endolysin. Microbiology 154(Pt 10):2970–2978CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. von Eiff C, Peters G, Becker K (2006) The small colony variant (SCV) concept—the role of staphylococcal SCVs in persistent infections. Injury 37 Suppl 2:S26–33Google Scholar
  96. Waddell TK, Rotstein OD (1994) Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents, Canadian Infectious Disease Society. CMAJ 151(7):925–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Waldvogel F, Bisno A (2000) Infections associated with indwellling medical devices 3rd edn. ASM Press WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  98. Wei BP, Robins-Browne RM, Shepherd RK et al (2008) Can we prevent cochlear implant recipients from developing pneumococcal meningitis? Clin Infect Dis 46(1):e1–7Google Scholar
  99. Widmer AF, Frei R, Rajacic Z et al (1990) Correlation between in vivo and in vitro efficacy of antimicrobial agents against foreign body infections. J Infect Dis 162(1):96–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Widmer AF, Wiestner A, Frei R et al (1991) Killing of nongrowing and adherent Escherichia coli determines drug efficacy in device-related infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 35(4):741–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Williams RJ, Henderson B, Sharp LJ et al (2002) Identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect Immun 70(12):6805–6810CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Yamaguchi K, Adams RA, Morrey BF (1998) Infection after total elbow arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 80(4):481–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Yao Y, Sturdevant DE, Otto M (2005) Genomewide analysis of gene expression in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: insights into the pathophysiology of S. epidermidis biofilms and the role of phenol-soluble modulins in formation of biofilms. J Infect Dis 191(2):289–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Zimmerli W (2008) Antibiotic Therapy. In: Baltensperger M, Eyrich G (eds) Osteomyelitis of the Jaws, 1st edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  105. Zimmerli W, Frei R, Widmer AF et al (1994) Microbiological tests to predict treatment outcome in experimental device-related infections due to Staphylococcus aureus. J Antimicrob Chemother 33(5):959–967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Zimmerli W, Lew PD, Waldvogel FA (1984) Pathogenesis of foreign body infection. Evidence for a local granulocyte defect. J Clin Invest 73(4):1191–1200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Zimmerli W, Ochsner PE (2003) Management of infection associated with prosthetic joints. Infection 31(2):99–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Zimmerli W, Trampuz A, Ochsner PE (2004) Prosthetic-joint infections. N Engl J Med 351(16):1645–1654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Zimmerli W, Waldvogel FA, Vaudaux P et al (1982) Pathogenesis of foreign body infection: description and characteristics of an animal model. J Infect Dis 146(4):487–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Zimmerli W, Widmer AF, Blatter M et al (1998) Role of rifampin for treatment of orthopedic implant-related staphylococcal infections: a randomized controlled trial. Foreign-Body Infection (FBI) Study Group. JAMA 279(19):1537–1541CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Zimmerli W, Zak O, Vosbeck K (1985) Experimental hematogenous infection of subcutaneously implanted foreign bodies. Scand J Infect Dis 17(3):303–310PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Infectious Diseases and Internal MedicineMedical University ClinicLiestalSwitzerland
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity Hospital LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations