Novel and Future Treatment Strategies
The biofilm mode of life is by many scientists acknowledged as a successful, bacterial survival strategy in hostile environments. When bacteria invade their hosts, they encounter harsh conditions such as low levels of iron, oxidative stress, macerating enzymes, phagocytic cells, and host-derived as well as administered antimicrobials. Experimental evidence has accumulated over the years showing that biofilms tolerate antimicrobial properties of the immune system and antibiotics. This multifaceted tolerance relies to a certain extend on general resistance mechanisms including efflux pumps and enzymatic modifications in addition to innate tolerances offered by integral structure-functions of the biofilm.
KeywordsSurfactant Catheter Pseudomonas Candida Rifampicin
- Caubet R., Pedarros-Caubet F, Chu M, Freye E, de Belem RM, Moreau JM, Ellison WJ (2004) A radio frequency electric current enhances antibiotic efficacy against bacterial biofilms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4662–4664Google Scholar
- Chatzinikolaou I, Hanna H, Graviss L, et al (2003) Clinical experience with minocycline and rifampin-impregnated central venous catheters in bone marrow transplantation recipients: efficacy and low risk of developing staphylococcal resistance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 24:961–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hockenhull JC, Dwan K, Boland A, et al (2008) The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of central venous catheters treated with anti-infective agents in preventing bloodstream infections: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 12:iii–iv, xi–xii, 1–154Google Scholar
- Hoffmann N, Lee B, Hentzer M, Rasmussen TB, Song Z, Johansen HK, Givskov M, Hoiby N (2007) Azithromycin blocks quorum sensing and alginate polymer formation and increases the sensitivity to serum and stationary-growth-phase killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and attenuates chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in Cftr(–/–) mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:3677–3687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walters MC III, Roe F, Bugnicourt A, Franklin MJ, Stewart PS (2003) Contributions of antibiotic penetration, oxygen limitation, and low metabolic activity to tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to ciprofloxacin and tobramycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:317–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar