Axillary Metastases with Unknown Primary

  • Ted A. James
  • David N. Krag


When the initial presentation of breast cancer is an axillary lymph node involved with metastatic cancer and clinical examination and mammography fail to identify a breast primary, the primary is said to be clinically occult. Fewer than 1% of breast cancers present in this fashion. The American Joint Clinical Commission on Cancer system denotes these patients as having T0N1, Stage IIA disease. Patients often present with palpable adenopathy or abnormal lymph nodes identified on radiologic exam. Proper clinical radiographic investigations are required to exclude the presence of other malignant processes and to attempt to identify the breast primary.


Breast Cancer Positive Node Axillary Dissection Primary Breast Tumor Breast Irradiation 
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Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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