• Kari J. Thompson
  • Jason J. Marengo
  • Anne M. Wallace


Gynecomastia is a benign proliferation of glandular breast tissue. Its etiology relates to an increased estrogen/androgen ratio. Estrogen stimulates the glandular cells of the breast, resulting in ductal hyperplasia and elongation with branching and proliferation of the periductal fibroblasts. Androgens are an antagonist to this hyperplasia. While there is no clear association between gynecomastia and breast cancer, it is important not to overlook this possibility. Both non-operative and operative treatment options are available depending on the patient’s concern. Surgical approaches, sometimes including multi-modality techniques, can provide excellent cosmetic results.


Breast Cancer Male Breast Cancer Female Breast Cancer Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Breast Enlargement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kari J. Thompson
  • Jason J. Marengo
  • Anne M. Wallace
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Divisions of Surgical Oncology and Plastic SurgeryUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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