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Obtaining a History and Performing the Clinical Breast Examination

  • Richard J. Bleicher
Chapter

Abstract

Obtaining a proper and thorough history and clinical breast exam is important for the diagnosis, planning, and treatment of breast care. Although there is a natural desire to limit the historical information elicited from the patient to breast symptoms for brevity, information obtained regarding other organ systems can add significantly to the patient’s breast evaluation by contributing diagnostic clues about possible pathologic processes. The clinician’s ability to properly recognize abnormal physical finding is critical. The history and exam, in conjunction with breast imaging and biopsy, as indicated, form the core tools required for evaluating breast health concerns

Keywords

Chest Wall Nipple Discharge Breast Symptom Areola Complex Fibrocystic Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

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Suggested Reading

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    Berry DA, Iversen Jr ES, Gudbjartsson DF, et al. BRCAPRO validation, sensitivity of genetic testing of BRCA1/BRCA2, and prevalence of other breast cancer susceptibility genes. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:2701–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Bleicher RJ, Morrow M. Approach to the patient with a breast mass. In: Dale DC, Federman DD, editors. ACP medicine, vol. 1. New York: WebMD Professional Publishing; 2007.Google Scholar
  3. 12.
    Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD. Autosomal dominant inheritance of early-onset breast cancer. Implications for risk prediction. Cancer. 1994;73:643–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 13.
    Daly MB, Axilbund JE, Bryant E, et al. NCCN Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. genetic/familial high-risk assessment: Breast and ovarian. v.1.2007. Available at: http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/PDF/genetics_screening.pdf Accessed 10 August 2007.
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    Hampel H, Sweet K, Westman JA, et al. Referral for cancer genetics consultation: a review and compilation of risk assessment criteria. J Med Genet. 2004;41:81–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Losken A, Fishman I, Denson DD, et al. An objective evaluation of breast symmetry and shape differences using 3-dimensional images. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;55:571–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    McTiernan A, Kuniyuki A, Yasui Y, et al. Comparisons of two breast cancer risk estimates in women with a family history of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10:333–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Spiegelman D, Colditz GA, Hunter D, Hertzmark E. Validation of the Gail et al. model for predicting individual breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994;86:600–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Whelan T, Olivotto I, Levine M. Clinical practice guidelines for the care and treatment of breast cancer: breast radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery (summary of the 2003 update). CMAJ. 2003;168:437–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgical OncologyFox Chase Cancer CenterPhiladelphiaUSA

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