# Analytic Geometry

• John Stillwell
Chapter
Part of the Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics book series (UTM)

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The first field of mathematics to benefit from the new language of equations was geometry. Around 1630, both Fermat and Descartes realized that geometric problems could be translated into algebra by means of coordinates, and that many problems could then be routinely solved by algebraic manipulation. The language of equations also provides a simple but natural classification of curves by degree. The curves of degree 1 are the straight lines; the curves of degree 2 are the conic sections; so the first “new” curves are those of degree 3, the cubic curves. Cubic curves exhibit new geometric features—cusps, inflections, and self-intersections—so they are considerably more complicated than the conic sections. Nevertheless, Newton attempted to classify them, and in doing so he discovered that cubic curves, when properly viewed, are not as complicated as they seem. We will find our way to the “right” viewpoint in Chapters 8 and 15. In the meantime we discuss another theorem that depends on the “right” viewpoint: B´ezout’s theorem, according to which a curve of degree m always meets a curve of degree n in mn points.

## Keywords

Double Point Projective Geometry Algebraic Curf Conic Section Analytic Geometry
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## References

1. Ball, W. W. R. (1890). Newton’s classification of cubic curves. Proc. London Math. Soc. 22, 104–143.
2. Boyer, C. B. (1956). History of Analytic Geometry. Scripta Mathematica, New York.
3. Hofmann, J. E. (1974). Leibniz in Paris, 1672–1676. London: Cambridge University Press. His growth to mathematical maturity, Revised and translated from the German with the assistance of A. Prag and D. T. Whiteside.
4. Scott, J. F. (1952). The Scientific Work of René Descartes (1596–1650). Taylor and Francis, Ltd., London.
5. Vrooman, J. R. (1970). René Descartes. A Biography. New York: Putman.Google Scholar